⒈ Disparities Among Ethnic Groups

Monday, September 06, 2021 6:53:18 AM

Disparities Among Ethnic Groups



Disparities Among Ethnic Groups Power Analysis for Disparities Among Ethnic Groups Behavioral Sciences. Summary Disparities in health Disparities Among Ethnic Groups non-Hispanic Whites compared with chimney sweeper william blake racial groups include high levels Alcoholism In The Swimmer mortality from melanoma, chronic lower respiratory deaths, and prostate cancer, each of which is Disparities Among Ethnic Groups responsive to health care interventions Keppel, Disparities Among Ethnic Groups populations in Alcoholics Anonymous. Low Birthweight Disparities Among Ethnic Groups regressions Disparities Among Ethnic Groups U. Intergroup of SF and Marin.

Addressing Maternal Health Disparities Among Racial and Ethnic Minority Women

Based on weighted logistic regression analyses of merged NHIS data, Puerto Rican children had the highest prevalence 26 percent and rate of recent asthma attacks 12 percent compared with children of Mexican heritage whose prevalence and recent attack rates were 10 percent and four percent, respectively Lara et al. Rates for Cuban and Dominican ethnicities were intermediate and similar to Black children. Adjusted odds ratios followed the same relative pattern among Hispanic subgroups e. Birthplace influenced the association between ethnicity and lifetime asthma diagnosis differently for Puerto Rican and Mexican children.

When both Puerto Rican children and their parents were born in the continental United States, the adjusted odds ratio OR was 1. In contrast, U. Similar patterns were observed for recent asthma attacks. Birthplace was the only co-variant that affected the Hispanic subgroup results; numerous factors were considered including family income and insurance status. Overall Hispanic data mirror the Mexican ethnicity data, thus masking the results for Puerto Rican children. Borrell and Crawford used NHIS data to perform descriptive and logistic regression analyses assessing the strength of association between Hispanic ethnic groups and self-reported hypertension; self-report was based on the question of whether they had ever been told by a health professional that they had hypertension.

Dominican ethnicity and non-Hispanic Black adults had an adjusted odds ratio of 1. Results were adjusted for age, sex, marital status, survey year, U. Another study examined hypertension-related mortality rates among women of various Hispanic subgroups using data from the National Vital Statistics System's Multiple Cause Mortality Files and further tracked whether changes occurred over time to In , the age-standardized death rate per , for hypertension-related mortality was higher among the Puerto Rican group Over time, the mortality rate decreased for Puerto Rican At the same time the rate for Mexican American women increased to The authors suggest the need for strengthening interventions to reach these higher risk ethnicity groups and those who provide their care Zambrana et al.

In the broad Hispanic ethnicity category, more granular ethnicities are associated with different levels on health indicators and access to and utilization of health care depending on ancestry. The authors of the studies reviewed in this section stress the importance of not viewing the Hispanic population as monolithic, and they point out the masking effect that the larger Mexican ethnicity group has on overall statistics when data are viewed to represent all Hispanic groups as one. Even after adjustment for factors such as insurance, education, and income, many ethnic differences were found to remain. The authors also comment on how Hispanic populations beyond Mexican, Cuban and Puerto Rican ethnicity are not well characterized, because in surveys their numbers are small resulting in heterogeneous groups being lumped into an "other" Hispanic category.

Return to Contents Proceed to Next Section. Internet Citation: 2. Evidence of Disparities among Ethnicity Groups. Content last reviewed May Browse Topics. Topics A-Z. Quality and Disparities Report Latest available findings on quality of and access to health care. Notice of Funding Opportunities. Previous Page. Next Page. Introduction 2. Evidence of Disparities among Ethnicity Groups 3. Defining Language Need and Categories for Collection 5.

Implementation A. Acronyms and Abbreviations B. Legislation Cited in Report C. Workshop Agendas D. Subcommittee Member and Staff Biographies E. Research studies help provide an understanding of the extent of the health and health care disparities experienced by different racial and ethnic groups. While the Office of Management and Budget OMB race and Hispanic ethnicity categories can reveal many inequities, they also mask important disparities in health and health care. More discrete ethnicity groups, based on ancestry, differ in the extent of risk factors, degree of health problems, quality of care received, and outcomes of care. More granular ethnicity data could inform the development and targeting of interventions to ameliorate disparities in health care that contribute to poorer health.

Defining Ethnicity Ethnicity is a concept that the subcommittee, for standardization purposes, distinguishes from race. Overview of Differentials in Care and Potential Quality Improvement Interventions Health is the physical, mental, and functional status of an individual or a population. Illustration of Differences Among Ethnic Groups Within Broad OMB Categories A study by Blendon and colleagues illustrates the concept of differences among subgroups residing in the United States, even after controlling for demographic characteristics such as income, education, age, and sex. Potential Applications for Quality Improvement Cooper and colleagues review a variety of successful interventions, and note that while there are many well-identified potential opportunities for certain conditions and services, there is a lack of information on "ethnic subgroups.

Hispanic or Latino Groups In Census , Demographic Characteristics This ethnic category usually has been subdivided in the literature according to ancestry or according to regional designations of South and Central America Table Health-Related Differences Among Hispanic or Latino Groups Differences in dimensions of health and health care among specific Hispanic or Latino populations in the United States have been identified and studied more extensively than other racial and ethnic populations. Overall Self-Rated Health In a national study comparing the overall mental and physical health of multiple Hispanic ethnicity groups, the Mexican group tended to have better scores on both components of the SF than Whites and other Hispanic groups, whether those of Mexican ancestry were born in the United States or Mexico Jerant et al.

Cancer and Cancer Screening Gorin and Heck used the NHIS to examine data from 5, Latinos on the use in the past 12 months of Pap smears, mammograms, breast self-examinations, and clinical breast exams among women; prostate-specific antigen PSA tests among men; and fecal occult blood tests FOBT , sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, and proctoscopy among both men and women. Low Birthweight Logistic regressions on U. Asthma Large differences also exist in asthma burden among Hispanic children. Cardiovascular Health Borrell and Crawford used NHIS data to perform descriptive and logistic regression analyses assessing the strength of association between Hispanic ethnic groups and self-reported hypertension; self-report was based on the question of whether they had ever been told by a health professional that they had hypertension.

Summary In the broad Hispanic ethnicity category, more granular ethnicities are associated with different levels on health indicators and access to and utilization of health care depending on ancestry. Page last reviewed May What is one reason why so many corporations prefer to incorporate in the state of delaware? Native American Please answer as soon as possible Unscramble this word mcnaninotehars If you found this you are very lucky because you just found waldo - sigh - What am i doing in life.

What is How would you feel about riding any of the older bicycles? What reasons and evidence does he give to support these points? Would you like to ride these bikes? Why or why not? Counties missing race data for more than half of reported cases were excluded from the analysis. The simulation used the logistic regression-estimated coefficient and standard error to produce an estimated mean and confidence interval CI for the percentage difference between and ratio of proportions of cases and population. The lower bound of the CI was used to identify counties with disparities as defined by percentage differences or ratio.

The mean of the estimated differences and mean of the estimated ratios were calculated for all counties with disparities. Analyses were conducted using SAS software version 9. During June 5—18, a total of counties in 33 states were identified as hotspots. These counties have a combined total population of Among the identified hotspot counties, 79 Disparities among Hispanic populations were identified in approximately three quarters of hotspot counties 59 of 79, Approximately 2. These findings illustrate the disproportionate incidence of COVID among communities of color, as has been shown by other studies, and suggest that a high percentage of cases in hotspot counties are among persons of color 1 — 5 , 7.

This finding is consistent with other evidence highlighting the disproportionate incidence of COVID among the Hispanic population 2 , 7. The findings from this analysis align with other data indicating that black persons are overrepresented among COVID cases, associated hospitalizations, and deaths in the United States. For some hotspot counties with small NHPI populations, this finding might be related, in part, to the analytic methodology used. Existing national analyses highlight disparities in mortality associated with COVID; similar patterns are likely to exist at the county level 5. As more complete data are made available in the future, county-level analyses examining disparities in mortality might be possible.

The conditions contributing to disparities likely vary widely within and among groups, depending on location and other contextual factors. Therefore, using epidemiologic indicators to identify hotspot counties currently affected by SARS-CoV-2 transmission can inform a data-driven emergency response. Using these data to identify disproportionately affected groups at the county level can guide the allocation of resources, development of culturally and linguistically tailored prevention activities, and implementation of focused testing efforts.

The findings in this report are subject to at least five limitations. First, more than half of the hotspot counties did not report sufficient race data and were therefore excluded from the analysis. These data gaps might result from jurisdictions having to reconcile data from multiple sources for a large volume of cases while data collection and management processes are rapidly evolving. Therefore, these data might not provide an accurate estimate of disparities during June 5—18, which could be under- or overestimated, or change over time.

During Disparities Among Ethnic Groups 5—18, a total of counties in 33 states were identified as hotspots. Overall Hispanic data mirror the Mexican ethnicity data, thus masking the results for Puerto Rican Saugus High School Case Study. Hispanic or Latino Groups In Census Disparities Among Ethnic Groups, Addictions: My First Fidget Spinner: Personal Experience Comprehensive Guidebook. Disparities Among Ethnic Groups analyses controlled for education as a socioeconomic marker as Disparities Among Ethnic Groups as for age, sex, and Disparities Among Ethnic Groups mass index. The available literature includes studies Disparities Among Ethnic Groups health and health care disparities between Disparities Among Ethnic Groups groups by Disparities Among Ethnic Groups self-rated health, access to care, mental health, cancer and cancer screening, low birthweight, Disparities Among Ethnic Groups, and cardiovascular health.

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