⒈ Anne-Marie Slaughters Current Event Analysis

Saturday, June 05, 2021 10:42:48 PM

Anne-Marie Slaughters Current Event Analysis

Chronology of Events. But in JanuaryAnne-Marie Slaughters Current Event Analysis my two-year public-service Anne-Marie Slaughters Current Event Analysis from Princeton University Fistfight In Heaven up, I hurried home as fast as I could. Sexual mutilation Anne-Marie Slaughters Current Event Analysis occurred after Henry David Thoreau And Transcendentalism rape and included mutilation of the vagina with machetes, knives, sharpened sticks, boiling water, and acid. Law portal. It is Anne-Marie Slaughters Current Event Analysis known Anne-Marie Slaughters Current Event Analysis brutal mass rapes were committed against German women; Anne-Marie Slaughters Current Event Analysis during and after World War II. Resources Bibliography Filmography. Main article: Rape. Wikimedia Commons Wikinews. On regrets and racism: I see a shift, but Anne-Marie Slaughters Current Event Analysis too slow.

Unfinished Business - Anne Marie Slaughter - Talks at Google

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A foraging instructor who has plundered The Akayesu judgement includes the first interpretation and application by an international court of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. The Trial Chamber held that rape which it defined as "a physical invasion of a sexual nature committed on a person under circumstances which are coercive" and sexual assault constitute acts of genocide insofar as they were committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a targeted group, as such.

It found that sexual assault formed an integral part of the process of destroying the Tutsi ethnic group and that the rape was systematic and had been perpetrated against Tutsi women only, manifesting the specific intent required for those acts to constitute genocide. The Tribunal found Jean Paul Akayesu not guilty of the six remaining counts, including the count of complicity in genocide and the counts relating to violations of Common Article 3 to the Geneva Conventions and of Additional Protocol II thereto. Rape first became recognized as crime against humanity when the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia issued arrest warrants in , based on the Geneva Conventions and Violations of the Laws or Customs of War.

This ruling challenged the widespread acceptance of rape and sexual enslavement of women as intrinsic part of war. Furthermore, two of the men were found guilty of the crime against humanity of sexual enslavement for holding women and girls captive in a number of de facto detention centres. Many of the women subsequently disappeared. However a total ban on abortion is a requirement of US humanitarian aid for war victims, with no exceptions for rape, incest, or to save the life of the mother. The Rome Statute Explanatory Memorandum, which defines the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court , recognizes rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution , forced pregnancy , enforced sterilization , "or any other form of sexual violence of comparable gravity" as crime against humanity if the action is part of a widespread or systematic practice.

In , the U. Security Council adopted resolution , which noted that "rape and other forms of sexual violence can constitute war crimes, crimes against humanity or a constitutive act with respect to genocide". The Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Conflict SRSG-SVC was established by Security Council Resolution , one in a series of resolutions which recognized the detrimental impact that sexual violence in conflict has on communities, and acknowledged that this crime undermines efforts at peace and security and rebuilding once a conflict has ended.

The office serves as the United Nations' spokesperson and political advocate on conflict-related sexual violence, and is the chair of the network UN Action against Sexual Violence in Conflict. While six of the eight priority countries are in Africa, this problem is widespread and the Office of the Special Representative is engaged on this issue in Asia and the Pacific in Cambodia for residual cases from the Khmer Rouge period and the Middle East Syria. Security Council unanimously passed Resolution , which supported abortion rights for girls and women raped in wars, "noting the need for access to the full range of sexual and reproductive health services, including regarding pregnancies resulting from rape, without discrimination. Security Council earlier in in September that girls and women raped in war should have access to "services for safe termination of pregnancies resulting from rape, without discrimination and in accordance with international human rights and humanitarian law.

Rape has accompanied warfare in virtually every known historical era. The practice of raping the women of a conquered group has remained a feature of warfare and conquest from the second millennium B. It is a social practice which, like the torture of prisoners, has been resistant to "progress," to humanitarian reforms, and to sophisticated moral and ethical considerations. I suggest this is the case because it is a practice built into and essential to the structure of patriarchal institutions and inseparable from them.

It is at the beginning of the system, prior to class formation, that we can see this in its purest essence. The Greek and Roman armies reportedly engaged in war rape, which is documented by ancient authors such as Homer , Herodotus , and Livy. Roman military officers using young Batavian boys for homosexual intercourse during the Revolt of the Batavi was noted by the historian Tacitus. According to medieval historians, the Huns and Avars , who invaded eastern Europe during Late Antiquity , harassed Wendish women and kept them in bondage as sex slaves : [44]. Each year, the Huns [Avars] came to the Slavs, to spend the winter with them; then they took the wives and daughters of the Slavs and slept with them, and among the other mistreatments [already mentioned] the Slavs were also forced to pay levies to the Huns.

But the sons of the Huns, who were [then] raised with the wives and daughters of these Wends [Slavs] could not finally endure this oppression anymore and refused obedience to the Huns and began, as already mentioned, a rebellion. The Huna invasions of the Indian subcontinent helped hasten the decline of the Gupta Empire. The Huna invaders conquered Kashmir , Punjab , and finally entered into the Ganges valley , in the very heart of India, slaughtering, pillaging, looting, burning, demolishing, and raping. Many cities in India were wiped out by the onslaught of the invaders; monasteries , temples , schools, and libraries were not spared, causing immense cultural destruction to the Indian subcontinent.

Accounts are consistent that the Huna warriors practiced mass rapes of women in India. The Vikings Scandinavians who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe from the late 8th century to the early 11th century , [47] have acquired a reputation for "rape and pillage". Viking settlements in Britain and Ireland are thought to have been primarily male enterprises, with a lesser role for female Vikings. Female slavery and war rapes were also common during the medieval Arab slave trade , where prisoners of war captured in battle from non-Arab lands often ended up as concubine slaves who are considered free when their master dies in the Arab World.

Before the Jurchens overthrew the Khitan , married Jurchen women and Jurchen girls were raped by Liao Khitan envoys as a custom which caused resentment by the Jurchens against the Khitan. The Mongols, who established the Mongol Empire across much of Eurasia, caused much destruction during their invasions. Documents written during or after Genghis Khan 's reign say that after a conquest, the Mongol soldiers looted, pillaged and raped.

Some troops who submitted were incorporated into the Mongol system in order to expand their manpower. These techniques were sometimes used to spread terror and warning to others. Murray said that "This drastic solution of the Bedouin question removed the pure Arab descendants of the Conquerors from the scene and so enabled the Beja to preserve themselves as an African race practically uninfluenced by Arab blood, while leaving the desert edges of Upper Egypt free for settlement by the Western Bedouin. During Timur' s invasion of Syria, in the Sack of Aleppo , Ibn Taghribirdi wrote that Timur's Tatar soldiers committed mass rape on the native women of Aleppo, massacring their children and forcing the brothers and fathers of the women to watch the gang rapes which took place in the mosques.

Tatar soldiers openly raped gentlewomen and virgins in public in both the small mosques and the Great Mosque. The brothers and fathers of the women were being tortured while forced to watch their female relatives get raped. The corpses in the streets and mosques resulted in stink permeating Aleppo. The women were kept naked while being gang raped repeatedly by different men. Mass rapes were also recorded in Timur's Sack of Damascus. Spanish conquistadors kidnapped and raped Native American women.

A significant number of women were gang-raped by Royalist and Irish Confederate troops under General Montrose who sacked Aberdeen in Scotland in In the Second Manchu invasion of Korea when Qing forces invaded the Korean Kingdom of Joseon , many Korean women were subjected to rape at the hands of the Qing forces, and as a result they were unwelcomed by their families even if they were released by the Qing after being ransomed. The Ush rebellion in by Uyghur Muslims against the Manchus of the Qing dynasty occurred after Uyghur women were gang raped by the servants and son of Manchu official Su-cheng. The invasion by Jahangir Khoja was preceded by another Manchu official, Binjing who raped a Muslim daughter of the Kokan aqsaqal from to The Qing sought to cover up the rape of Uyghur women by Manchus to prevent anger against their rule from spreading among the Uyghurs.

Multiple Taiwanese Aboriginal villages in frontier areas rebelled against the Dutch in the s due to acts of oppression, such as when the Dutch ordered that aboriginal women be turned over to them for sex, and when they demanded that deer pelts and rice be given to them by aborigines in the Taipei basin in Wu-lao-wan village, sparking a rebellion in December Two Dutch translators were beheaded by the Wu-lao-wan aborigines and in a subsequent fight 30 aboriginals and two additional Dutch people died, after an embargo of salt and iron on Wu-lao-wan. The aboriginals were forced to sue for peace in February Dutch women were kept as sexual slaves by the Chinese after the Dutch were expelled from Taiwan in The Dutch missionary Antonius Hambroek , two of his daughters, and his wife were among the Dutch prisoners of war who were being held captive by Koxinga.

Koxinga sent Hambroek to Fort Zeelandia demanding that he persuade them to surrender or else Hambroek would be killed when he returned. Hambroek returned to the Fort, where two of his other daughters were being held prisoner. He urged the commander of the Fort not to surrender, and returned to Koxinga's camp. He was then executed by decapitation, and in addition to this, a rumor was spread among the Chinese that the Dutch were encouraging the native Taiwanese aboriginals to kill Chinese, so Koxinga ordered the mass execution of Dutch male prisoners in retaliation, in addition to a few women and children who were also being held prisoner. The surviving Dutch women and children were then enslaved, with the Dutch women being sold eventually to Chinese soldiers to become their wives, [77] [78] [79] after Koxinga's commanders had thoroughly used them for their own sexual pleasures.

Happy was she that fell to the lot of an unmarried man, being thereby freed from vexations by the Chinese women, who are very jealous of their husbands. As late as some of these Dutch women were still being held captive as wives or slave concubines by the Chinese. Memory of the fate of the Dutch women and of Hambroek's daughter has been kept alive through the subsequent historiography of the period, [87] [88] [89] [90] whence it has stoked various dramatised and fictionalised retellings of the story.

The topic of the Chinese taking the Dutch women and the daughter of Antonius Hambroek as concubines was featured in Joannes Nomsz's play which became famous and well known in Europe and revealed European anxieties about the fate of the Dutch women along with their sense of humiliation after being subjected to defeat at the hands of non-Europeans.

Cossacks took Muslim Circassian women and had children with them. Russians raped Circassian girls during the Russo-Turkish war from the Circassian refugees who were settled in the Ottoman Balkans. During the Circassian genocide , general Grigory Zass of the Russian army and Nikolai Yevdokimov ordered their officers and soldiers to be allowed to rape 7 year old Circassian girls. Incidents of rape committed by Indian sepoys against British women and children were reported in the English press , particularly after British civilians fell into Indian hands after sieges such as at Cawnpore. However, after the rebellion was suppressed, detailed analyses by the British government concluded that although Indian sepoys had engaged in massacres of British civilians after they captured them, there had never been one single instance of war rape committed by the sepoys.

As British troops suppressed the rebellion, angered by reports of massacres and rapes of British civilians, reprisals were often carried out against Indian civilians, particularly at Cawnpore. Indian women were often a target of rape by the enraged soldiers. The Ever Victorious Army which defeated the Taiping Rebellion in Qing China gained notoriety among the Chinese populace for frequently looting villages and raping women they came across, but their commander Charles Gordon did attempt to control them, executing men accused of looting or rape.

During the Boxer Rebellion , the Yihetuan committed several massacres of foreign civilians motivated by their anti-Christian and anti-Western sentiment. The number of women who committed suicide numbered in the thousands. Luella Miner wrote that the behavior of the Russian and French was particularly appalling. Chinese women and girls killed themselves in order to avoid being raped. The French commander dismissed the rapes, attributing them to the "gallantry of the French soldiers". In German South-West Africa during the Herero rebellion against German rule and the subsequent Herero and Namaqua Genocide , German soldiers regularly engaged in gang rapes [] before killing the women or leaving them in the desert to die; a number of Herero women were also forced into involuntary prostitution.

Rapes were allegedly committed during the German advance through Belgium in the first months of the war. Lasswell dismissed the rape allegations as propaganda in his Freudian-oriented study, "Propaganda Technique in the World War". The individual stories of the women that were impacted were used to justify the war and to market it to the civilians. The sometimes widespread and systematic occurrence of war rape of women by soldiers has been documented.

During World War II and in its immediate aftermath, war rape occurred in a range of situations, ranging from institutionalized sexual slavery to war rapes associated with specific battles. The term " comfort women " is a euphemism for the estimated ,, mostly Korean, Chinese, Japanese, Taiwanese and Filipino women who were said to be forced to serve as sex slaves in Japanese military brothels during World War II. In the Nanking Massacre , Japanese soldiers were said to have sexually assaulted Chinese women who were trapped in the city of Nanjing when it fell to the Japanese on 13 December The International Military Tribunal for the Far East estimated that 20, women, children, were raped or otherwise sexually assaulted during the occupation.

It was reported in that many Russian women were raped and as result many Japanese troops were infected with venereal disease. A unknown number of white females and children's were either raped or sexually assaulted at various locations such as Banoeng, Padang, Tarakan, Menado, Flores island and Blora, at the beginning of the Japanese initial invasion and occupation. There was , interned Europeans males, females and children's throughout Indonesia as prisoners or civilian internees.

Besides Dutch women, many Javanese were also recruited from Indonesia as comfort women including around Timorese women and girls who also used as sexual slaves. Melanesian women from New Guinea were also used as comfort women. Local women were recruited from Rabaul as comfort women, along with a small number of mixed Japanese-Papuan women born to Japanese fathers and Papuan mothers. I heard them screaming for help nearly every night'. A large number of rapes were committed by U. Soon after the U. At the time, there were only women, children and old people in the village, as all the young men had been mobilized for the war.

Soon after landing, the marines "mopped up" the entire village, but found no signs of Japanese forces. Taking advantage of the situation, they started "hunting for women" in broad daylight and those who were hiding in the village or nearby air raid shelters were dragged out one after another. According to Toshiyuki Tanaka, 76 cases of rape or rape-murder were reported during the first five years of the American occupation of Okinawa. However, he asserts this is probably not the true figure, as most cases were unreported.

When the Japanese surrendered, they anticipated that widespread rapes would occur during the following occupation and made rapid efforts to set up brothels to curb this. Despite this precaution, 1, rapes reportedly occurred during the first 10 days of the occupation of Kanagawa prefecture , although a similar figure has also been given for the whole of Japan.

Individual instances of rape by members of the United States Army in Japan were reported while their forces were stationed in post-war Japan , such as the Yumiko-chan incident and the Okinawa rape incident. Some historians state that mass rapes took place during the initial phase of the occupation. For instance, Fujime Yuki has stated that 3, rapes occurred in the first month after American troops landed.

During the Soviet invasion of Manchuria , Soviet and Mongolian soldiers attacked and raped Japanese civilians, often encouraged by the local Chinese population who were resentful of Japanese rule. The local Chinese population sometimes even joined in these attacks against the Japanese population with the Soviet soldiers. In one famous example, during the Gegenmiao massacre , Soviet soldiers, encouraged by the local Chinese population, raped and massacred over one thousand Japanese women and children. Property of the Japanese were also looted by the Soviet soldiers and Chinese. Many Japanese women married themselves to local Manchurian men to protect themselves from persecution by Soviet soldiers. These Japanese women mostly married Chinese men and became known as "stranded war wives" zanryu fujin.

According to British and American reports, Soviet Red Army troops also looted and terrorized the local people of Mukden located in Manchuria. A foreigner witnessed Soviet troops, formerly stationed in Berlin, who were allowed by the Soviet military to go into the city of Mukden "for three days of rape and pillage". Konstantin Asmolov of the Center for Korean Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences dismisses Western accounts of Soviet violence against civilians in the Far East as exaggeration and rumor and contends that accusations of mass crimes by the Red Army inappropriately extrapolate isolated incidents regarding the nearly 2,, Soviet troops in the Far East into mass crimes.

According to him, such accusations are refuted by the documents of the time, from which it is clear that such crimes were far less of a problem than in Germany. Asmolov further asserts that the Soviets prosecuted their perpetrators while prosecution of German and Japanese "rapists and looters" in WWII was virtually unknown. Italian statistics record eight rapes and nineteen attempted rapes by British soldiers in Italy between September and December , during and after the invasion of Sicily. Though a high priority for the Royal Military Police , some commanders proved reluctant to prosecute their men.

Rapes were committed by Wehrmacht forces on Jewish women and girls during the Invasion of Poland in September ; [] they were also committed against Polish, Ukrainian, Belarusian and Russian women and girls during mass executions which were primarily carried out by the Selbstschutz units, with the assistance of Wehrmacht soldiers who were stationed in territory that was under the administration of the German military; the rapes were committed against female captives before they were shot. Rapes were also committed by German forces stationed on the Eastern Front , where they were largely unpunished as opposed to rapes committed in Western Europe ; the overall number of rapes is difficult to establish due to the lack of prosecutions of the crime by German courts.

French Moroccan troops, known as Goumiers , committed rapes and other war crimes in Italy after the Battle of Monte Cassino [] and in Germany. In Italy, victims of the mass rape committed after the Battle of Monte Cassino by Goumiers, colonial troops of the French Expeditionary Corps , are known as Marocchinate. According to Italian sources, more than 7, Italian civilians, including women and children, were raped by Goumiers. French Senegalese troops too, known as Senegalese Tirailleurs , who landed on the island of Elba on 17 June , were responsible for mass rapes, though their behaviour was considered less brutal than that of the French North African troops in continental Italy. Secret wartime files made public in reveal that American GIs committed at least sexual offenses in Europe, including rapes in the United Kingdom, between and Robert Lilly estimates US soldiers raped at least 11, women and children during the occupation of Germany.

During the war, German women were victims of brutal mass rapes committed against them by Soviet [] [] soldiers. Polish sources claim that mass rapes were committed in Polish cities that had been taken by the Red Army. Reportedly the scale of the attacks prompted communists installed by the Soviets to prepare a letter of protest to Joseph Stalin , while masses in churches were held in expectation of a Soviet withdrawal. Many of these victims were raped repeatedly. A female Soviet war correspondent described what she had witnessed: "The Russian soldiers were raping every German female from eight to eighty. It was an army of rapists. Soviet women were not spared either.

Antony Beevor estimates that up to half of all rape victims were victims of gang rapes. Naimark states that not only did each victim have to carry the trauma with her for the rest of her days, it also inflicted a massive collective trauma on the East German nation. Naimark concludes "The social psychology of women and men in the Soviet zone of occupation was marked by the crime of rape from the first days of the occupation, through the founding of the GDR in the fall of , until, one could argue, the present. During 11 months of in the ,man logistics branch of Chinese Volunteer Army , there were 41 men charged with rapes.

Hundreds of thousands of instances of rape and other sexual violence were committed by French troops and opposing members of the Algerian National Liberation Front FLN during the Algerian War. There were rapes and sexual atrocities commmited by American servicemen and South Korean troops in the Vietnam war. The Indonesian invasion of East Timor and West Papua caused the murders of approximately , to , West Papuans and many thousands of women raped. During the Bangladesh Liberation War in , numerous women were tortured and raped by Pakistani army. Exact numbers are not known and are a subject of debate. Most of the women were captured from Dhaka University and private homes and kept as sex-slaves inside the Dhaka Cantonment.

He was of the opinion that the , to , rape victims was an underestimation. On the actions of Pakistan army he said "They'd keep the infantry back and put artillery ahead and they would shell the hospitals and schools. And that caused absolute chaos in the town. And then the infantry would go in and begin to segregate the women. Apart from little children, all those were sexually matured would be segregated And then the women would be put in the compound under guard and made available to the troops…Some of the stories they told were appalling. Being raped again and again and again. A lot of them died in those [rape] camps".

Bangladeshi women have been raped during the Bangladesh Liberation War in by the Pakistan army during night raids on villages. The word Birangona war heroine is a title given, by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman after the war, to the women raped and tortured during the war. This was a conscious effort to alleviate any social stigma the women might face in the society. How successful this effort was is doubtful, though. In June , the United States Department of State organized a conference titled "South Asia in Crisis: United States Policy, —" where Sarmila Bose , published a paper suggesting that the casualties and rape allegations in the war have been greatly exaggerated for political purposes.

This work has been criticized in Bangladesh and her research has been attacked by expatriate Bengalis. During the war Bengali nationalists also indulged in the mass rape of ethnic Bihari Muslim women, since the Bihari Muslim community had remained loyal to the cause of a United Pakistan. The article was the first that exposed the brutal crackdown by the Pakistan army. It has been reported that in Peru , throughout the year internal conflict , women were frequent victims of sustained war rape perpetrated by government security forces and the Shining Path.

The Soviet forces abducted Afghan women in helicopters while flying in the country in search of mujahideen. In November a number of such incidents had taken place in various parts of the country, including Laghman and Kama. Soviet soldiers as well as KhAD agents kidnapped young women from the city of Kabul and the areas of Darul Aman and Khair Khana, near the Soviet garrisons, to rape them.

Wars and civil conflicts can create a "culture of violence" [] or a "culture of impunity" [] towards human rights abuses of civilians. During periods of armed conflict, there are structures, actors, and processes at a number of levels that affect the likelihood of violence against civilians. Among some armies, looting of civilian areas is considered a way for soldiers to supplement their often meager income, which can be unstable if soldiers are not paid on time.

Some militias that cannot afford to adequately pay their troops promote pillaging as a compensation for victory, and rape of civilians can be seen as a reward for winning battles. According to UNICEF , "systematic rape is often used as a weapon of war in ethnic cleansing ," having been used in various armed conflicts throughout the twentieth century alone, including Bosnia and Herzegovina , Cambodia , Uganda , and Vietnam. She argues that explanations must take account of the increased general risk of rape, that certain groups of women are at more risk of rape, and that men are raped.

In the structuralist framework, rape may be seen as a form of torture designed to destroy a woman's identity as a woman within a particular culture, or to destroy an ethnic community itself. She cites examples of women being raped in front of other civilians, and different groups of women being more likely to experience sexual violence. In the social constructionist framework, she cites work that argues that the act of sexual intercourse can be used to feminize one participant and masculinize another, so the rape of men can seem to damage the identity of those who are raped by feminizing them.

Dara Kay Cohen argues that some military groups use gang rape to bond soldiers and create a sense of cohesion within units, particularly when troops are recruited by force. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak characterizes "group rape perpetrated by the conquerors" as "a metonymic celebration of territorial acquisition". Evidence provided by Cohen also suggests that some militaries that use child soldiers use rape as a maturation ritual to increase the tolerance of troops for violence, especially in patriarchal societies that equate masculinity with dominance and control.

Some refugees and internally displaced people experience human trafficking for sexual or labour exploitation due to the breakdown of economies and policing in conflict regions. In discussing gang rape as a means of bonding among soldiers, Cohen discusses the viewpoint of " combatant socialization ", in which military groups use gang rape as a socialization tactic during armed conflict. By using gang rape during armed conflict, militia group members:. While war rape may not be an apparent tool or weapon of war, it does serve as a primary tool to create a cohesive military group. Some political and military leaders publicly suggested during the twenty-first century that wartime sexual violence is legitimate in the sense that it is humorous, insignificant in comparison to military deaths, or expected.

Each of them had about 10 kids. These women have only been penetrated by men, whereas our soldiers were penetrated by a knife. Susan Brownmiller was the first historian to attempt an overview of rape in war with documentation and theory. The maleness of the military—the brute power of weaponry exclusive to their hands, the spiritual bonding of men at arms, the manly discipline of orders given and orders obeyed, the simple logic of the hierarchical command—confirms for men what they long suspect—that women are peripheral to the world that counts. An estimated 45 million plus civilians died during World War II. Male and female civilians may be subject to torture , but many studies show that war rape is more frequently perpetrated on women than men.

The victims of war rape are usually "civilians", a category first recognized in the 19th century. Even when laws of war have recognized and forbidden sexual assault, few prosecutions have been brought. According to Kelly Dawn Askin, the laws of war perpetuated the attitude that sexual assaults against women are less significant crimes, not worthy of prosecution. Human Rights Watch linked the hidden aspect to the largely gender-specific character of war rape — abuse committed by men against women. This gender-specific character has contributed to war rape being "narrowly portrayed as sexual or personal in nature, a portrayal that depoliticizes sexual abuse in conflict and results in its being ignored as a war crime.

He argues that war rape occurs in the context of stereotypes about women and men, which are part of the basic belief that violent power belongs to men, and that women are its victims. The rape of men by other men is also common in war. Stemple concludes that the "lack of attention to sexual abuse of men during conflict is particularly troubling given the widespread reach of the problem". The lack of awareness for the magnitude of the rape of men during conflict relates to chronic underreporting. Although the physical and psychological repercussions from rape are similar for women and men, male victims tend to demonstrate an even greater reluctance to report their suffering to their families or the authorities.

According to The Guardian , "Both perpetrator and victim enter a conspiracy of silence and why male survivors often find, once their story is discovered, that they lose the support and comfort of those around them. In the patriarchal societies found in many developing countries, gender roles are strictly defined. They ask me: 'So now how am I going to live with him? As what? Is this still a husband? Is it a wife? Sexual violence against men weaponizes ideas of gender and sexuality against victims, reinforcing gendered hierarchies and causing tremendous physical and mental pain to victims. In conflict situations, rape against men dissolves this relationship and puts men in the 'receiving' role of the victim.

Similarly, the 'penetrating' role of men as opposed to the 'receiving' role of women in conventional sexual intercourse illustrates this constructed power relationship. Hence, male rape victims experience the worst possible 'humiliation' with regards to the ingrained social roles they are traditionally expected to fulfill. Moreover, their stigmatization takes on particularly severe dimensions within conservative social environments in which homosexual intercourse — regardless of consent — is punished harshly.

For example, Ugandan male rape victims explain their choice to not speak out with the fear of being branded homosexuals. In certain cases, gender roles concerning violence and sexual conduct are so deeply ingrained that the mere existence of male rape is denied. A study lists the physical injury to the victims of war rape as traumatic injuries, sexually transmitted diseases, maternal mortality, unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions, and persistent gynecological problems are of major concern. Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus HIV is not uncommon.

War rape may include physical rape of the male organ. Women victims may suffer from incontinence and vaginal fistula as a result of these particularly violent instances of rape. In extreme instances of violent rape in war, the walls of the vagina are torn or punctured, resulting in severe pain and debilitating incontinence urinary complications and bowel containment. Physical effects may also include bone breakage such as backbreaking and cranial cracks, causing future disability, visual and hearing impairment, and mental incapacitation.

Victims and survivors of war rape are at very high risk of psychosocial problems. The short-term psychological injuries to the victims include feelings of fear, helplessness, sadness , disorientation, isolation , vulnerability , and desperation. If left untreated, the psychological effects of sexual assault and rape can be devastating, sometimes even deadly. Causes of death as the result of sexual violence include suicide and murder.

Murder of sexual assault and rape victims may be perpetrated by the rapist or as part of an honor killing by family members of the victim. Long-term psychological injuries may include depression , anxiety disorders including post-traumatic stress syndrome PTSS , multiple somatic symptoms, flashbacks , on-going trauma, chronic insomnia, self-hatred, nightmares, paranoia, difficulty re-establishing intimate relationships, shame, disgust, anger, and persistent fears. Individuals who have experienced sexual assault are at risk for other day-to-day problems, including arguing with family members and having problems at work.

Lack of medical psychological support resources also puts victims of war rape at further disadvantage. As a result, adequate emotional and psychological support to the victims is not fully developed, affecting the long-term healing potential for the patient. In addition to the physical and psychological damages resulting from rape, sexual violence in the context of war often disrupt the linkages between the rape victims and their communities. Thus, the phenomenon of war rape can structurally affect entire societies, which is closely linked to the logic underlying the strategic use of rape as an instrument in armed conflicts. Raping 'enemy' women also constitutes an act of abuse and humiliation against the men of the community the victims were representative of.

Research in suggests that wartime sexual violence may increase instances of intimate partner abuse in the affected society. A study on the aftermath of civil war in Peru estimated that in departments which had experienced conflict-related sexual violence, women in the department were at increased risk of intimate partner violence after the war. Besides the psychosocial effects on women as the most frequent victims of wartime rape, children born of rape are faced with distinct social stigmas. The existence of taboos around the issue of war rape can also be an obstacle to post-conflict reconciliation.

Psychosocial consequences [] of war rape describe how the linkages between victims and the society are altered as a result of sexual abuses during war. Both during and even more in the aftermath of conflict, when abuses become known, victims of war rape risk finding themselves in situations of social isolation, often abandoned by their husbands and rejected by their communities [] The ordeal is thus not over with the survival of the act of abuse but has a long-term effect that can only to a limited extent be dealt with by the victims themselves. The process of re-victimization captures how victims of sexual violence continue to "receive additional hurt after the direct cause of victimization has disappeared" [] with stigmatization and exclusion being among the main sources of re-victimization.

This is particularly relevant in patriarchal societies , where female sexuality is linked to male honour, virginity is a core value, and where a culture considers ethnicity transmitted through male genes. War rape can have an equally strong and a long-lasting effect on children who are born as a result of it. On the one hand, these children may not be immediately identified and as a result, they might not find out about their origins until they reach a later point in their lives.

In turn, if the children themselves but even more importantly, if the community knows about the 'war babies', [] they risk being regarded as the 'other' by the communities which they were born into. Recurring patterns in countries which include Bosnia and Herzegovina , Uganda , Sierra Leone and Rwanda show how children who were born as a result of war rape and the mothers who do not want them both have to face struggles with regard to issues which are related to their identities — both in an administrative and a personal sense — and their rights are sometimes restricted, such as their right to obtain an education and their right to be protected from discrimination and physical harm. The societal consequences of war rape can equally have a negative impact on post-conflict reconciliation and the judicial follow-up on wartime crimes, including rape.

Given the stigmatisation of victims and their isolation or fear thereof, they might prefer to remain silent with regard to the violations they have suffered. Indeed, underreporting of cases of rape during armed conflict is a practical challenge post-conflict communities have to face that is pointed to by a number of actors, including the United Nations Secretary-General , [] the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights [] as well as international NGOs.

As Human Rights Watch reported with regard to war rape during the Rwandan genocide , victims "expressed dismay at the fact that they were being urged to forget what happened to them in the name of peace and reconciliation". The perpetrators of rape are often officials or otherwise affiliated with the state's institutions, which might make reporting of assaults appear useless. Disrupted healthcare sectors is a term the World Health Organization describes for medical facilities that are destroyed or partially destroyed in war torn areas. Psychological support units are also hampered by the lack of material resources available to the medical community on-ground. Medical practitioners and health-care workers face daunting challenges in conflict and post-conflict area.

Dismantling weapons from armed rebels and other groups are prioritized in immediate post-conflict situations which in effect de-prioritizes the immediate physical and psychiatric care that war rape victims are in urgent need of. The majority of rapes were gang rapes. Rapes by members of the Kosovo Liberation Army have also been documented. It has been estimated that during the Bosnian War between 20, and 50, women were raped.

The majority of the rape victims were Muslim women raped by Serbian soldiers. Sexual violence occurred in multiple ways, including rape with objects, such as broken glass bottles, guns and truncheons. During the Bosnian War, the existence of deliberately created "rape camps" was reported. The reported aim of these camps was to impregnate the Muslim and Croatian women held captive. It has been reported that often women were kept in confinement until the late stage of their pregnancy. This occurred in the context of a patrilineal society, in which children inherit their father's ethnicity, hence the "rape camps" aimed at the birth of a new generation of Serb children. According to the Women's Group Tresnjevka more than 35, women and children were held in such Serb-run "rape camps".

During the Kosovo War thousands of Kosovo Albanian women and girls became victims of sexual violence. War rape was used as a weapon of war and an instrument of systematic ethnic cleansing ; rape was used to terrorize the civilian population, extort money from families, and force people to flee their homes. According to a Human Rights Watch report war rape in the Kosovo War can generally be subdivided into three categories: rapes in women's homes, rapes during fighting, and rapes in detention. The majority of the perpetrators were Serbian paramilitaries, but they also included Serbian special police or Yugoslav army soldiers. Most rapes were gang rapes involving at least two perpetrators. Rapes occurred frequently in the presence, and with the acquiescence, of military officers.

Soldiers, police, and paramilitaries often raped their victims in the full view of numerous witnesses. During the Bosnian War , Bosnian Serb forces conducted a sexual abuse strategy against thousands of Bosnian Muslim girls and women which became known as a "mass rape phenomenon". No exact figures on how many women and children were systematically raped by the Serb forces in various camps were established, [] [] [] but estimates range from 20, [] to 50, During the Rwandan genocide, from April until July , hundreds of thousands of women and girls were raped or became the victims of other forms of sexual violence. Anne-Marie de Brouwer concludes that considering the massive scale and public nature of war rape during the Rwandan genocide , "it is difficult to imagine anybody in Rwanda who was not aware of the sexual violence taking place.

The Trial Chamber held that "sexual assault formed an integral part of the process of destroying the Tutsi ethnic group and that the rape was systematic and had been perpetrated against Tutsi women only, manifesting the specific intent required for those acts to constitute genocide. In his report, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Rwanda, Rene Degni-Segui stated that "rape was the rule and its absence was the exception. This can be estimated from the number and nature of the victims as well as from the forms of rape. The Special Rapporteur on Rwanda estimated in his report that between 2, and 5, pregnancies resulted from war rape, and that between , and , Rwandese women and girls had been raped.

Within the context of the Rwandan genocide, victims of sexual violence were predominantly attacked on the basis of their gender and ethnicity. The victims were mostly Tutsi women and girls, of all ages, while men were only seldomly the victims of war rape. Women were demonized in the anti-Tutsi propaganda prior to the genocide. The December issue of the newspaper Kangura published the "Ten Commandments", four of which portrayed Tutsi women as tools of the Tutsi community, as sexual weapons that would be used by the Tutsi to weaken and ultimately to destroy the Hutu men. Examples of gender based hate propaganda used to incite war rape included statements by perpetrators such as "You Tutsi women think that you are too good for us" and "Let us see what a Tutsi woman tastes like".

War rape also occurred regardless of ethnicity or political affiliation, with young or beautiful women being targeted based on their gender only. Sexual violence against men occurred significantly less frequently, but it frequently included the mutilation of their genitals, which were often displayed in public. Sexual violence against women and girls during the Rwandan genocide included: rape, gang rape, sexual slavery either collectively or individually through "forced marriages" , rape with objects such as sticks and weapons often leading to the victim's death, sexual mutilation of, in particular, breasts, vaginas or buttocks, often during or following rape.

Pregnant women were not spared from sexual violence and on many occasions victims were killed following rape. Many women were raped by men who knew they were HIV positive and it has been suggested that there were deliberate attempts to transmit the virus to Tutsi women and their families. War rape occurred all over the country and it was frequently perpetrated in plain view of others, at sites such as schools, churches, roadblocks, government buildings or in the bush.

Some women were kept as personal slaves for years after the genocide, and they were eventually forced to move to neighbouring countries after the genocide along with their captors. The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, established in after the Rwandan Genocide, has only brought three perpetrators before the Tribunal, with the first conviction in During the Sri Lankan Civil War , multiple Human Rights Organizations reported cases of rape, violence and disappearance of women in the s, claiming to be committed by security forces. Government officials, including the president, have denied the claims and agreed to co-operate with the investigations and prosecute whomever they find guilty. Some of the notable cases of murdered raped victims and the massacres associated with the rape incidents are Krishanti Kumaraswamy , Arumaithurai Tharmaletchumi , Ida Carmelitta , Ilayathambi Tharsini , Murugesapillai Koneswary , Premini Thanuskodi , Sarathambal , Kumarapuram massacre and Vankalai massacre.

On 24 September , in the Malisbong massacre the Armed Forces of the Philippines slaughtered 1, Moro Muslim civilians who were praying at a Mosque in addition to mass raping Moro girls who had been taken aboard a boat. In the Chittagong Hill Tracts Bengali settlers and soldiers have raped native Jumma Chakma women "with impunity" with the Bangladeshi security forces doing little to protect the Jummas and instead assisting the rapists and settlers.

According to Amnesty International, documented cases of war rape in the early twenty-first century include incidents in Afghanistan , Chechnya , Colombia , Iraq, Sudan , and Nepal. Commenting on the rape of women and children in African conflict zones, UNICEF said in that rape was no longer just perpetrated by combatants but also by civilians. According to UNICEF rape is common in countries affected by wars and natural disasters, drawing a link between the occurrence of sexual violence and significant uprooting of a society and the crumbling of social norms.

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