✯✯✯ Response To They Say I Say Junk Food

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Response To They Say I Say Junk Food



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In On Liberty , Mill argued that "the only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others. So what are the best methods for increasing vaccination? Education and the incentives of the market have encouraged many Americans to get themselves and their children immunized, and surely those avenues of persuasion can and should be used more. Perhaps schools and daycare centers and pediatric clinics could attract clients by advertising their refusal to admit unvaccinated kids.

Or social pressure might be exercised by parents who insist on assurances from other parents that their children are vaccinated before agreeing to playdates. But it would be naive not to acknowledge the central role of government mandates in spreading immunization. By requiring that children entering school be vaccinated against many highly contagious diseases, states have greatly benefited the vast majority of Americans. For the sake of social peace, vaccine opt-out loopholes based on religious and philosophical objections should be maintained. States should, however, amend their vaccine exemption laws to require that people who take advantage of them acknowledge in writing that they know their actions are considered by the medical community to be putting others at risk.

This could potentially expose vaccine objectors to legal liability, should their decisions lead to infections that could have been prevented. People who refuse vaccination are asserting that they have a right to "swing" their microbes at other people. That is wrong. In Steven Spielberg's sci-fi film Minority Report , a special police agency called PreCrime nabs suspects before they ever commit an offense. No trial is necessary because the crime is seen as an infallible prediction of the future and thus a matter of fact. The movie challenges viewers to consider the tension between technological determinism and free will, between the rights of an individual and the health of a community.

It's a useful metaphor for the argument against coercive vaccination. Some argue that mandatory mass vaccination is an act of communal self-defense, and thus completely compatible with the principles underpinning a free society. Unless people are forcibly immunized, they will endanger the life and health of innocent bystanders, goes the argument. But such a position requires a level of precognition we haven't yet attained. Not everyone who is vaccinated against a microbe develops immunity to that microbe.

Some people have inborn "natural" immunity against certain viruses and other microorganisms. Central Africans born with the sickle-cell trait provide a classic example of such inborn immunity: Their sickle-shaped red blood cells are inhospitable to the mosquito-borne parasite that causes malaria. Other people are just lucky and never get exposed to a contagious microbe. Just like not every pregnant woman who drinks alcohol or smokes tobacco passes on a malady or disability to her newborn baby, not every pregnant woman infected with a virus or other microbe passes on the infection to her fetus-nor are all such babies born with birth defects. A free society demands adherence to the non-aggression principle.

No person should initiate force against another, and should only use force in retaliation or self-defense. Forcibly injecting substances-attenuated microbes or otherwise-into someone else's body cannot be justified as an act of self-defense, because there is no way to determine with certainty that the person will ever be responsible for disease transmission. Ronald Bailey suggests that the choice to remain unvaccinated is analogous to "walking down a street randomly swinging your fists without warning.

Such a person is engaging in a deliberate action, as opposed to choosing inaction. And, unlike those prevented from opting out of vaccination, the fist-swinger incurs no threat to life or limb when prohibited from throwing his punches. If someone chooses the inaction of non-vaccination based upon the belief-right or wrong-that the vaccination is harmful or even life threatening, then coercive vaccination in this context is clearly a case of aggression. For it to be otherwise requires certainty that those beliefs are wrong. And certainty in this case is not possible. How can you be sure, for example, that a child won't have an adverse or even fatal reaction to a vaccine? And how can defending forced immunization as self-defense be justified when it can never be shown with certainty that the non-vaccinated person would have been responsible for another person's harm?

Then there is the matter of "herd immunity. Economists point out that free riding is an unavoidable fact of life: People free ride when they purchase a new, improved, and cheaper product that was "pre-tested" on more affluent people who wanted to be the first to own it; people free ride when they use word-of-mouth reviews to decide whether to buy goods or services, or to see a film; those who choose not to carry concealed weapons free ride a degree of personal safety off the small percentage of the public that does.

So here is a way of thinking about it: As long as the person who is being free-ridden is still getting desired value for an acceptable price, and is not being harmed by the free riding, it really shouldn't matter. Achieving a society without free riders is not only unnecessary, it is impossible. Perhaps allowing a certain number of free riders could mitigate the disruption to liberty caused by mandatory vaccination programs. But then, how many free riders should be allowed? I don't think that question can be answered with any degree of certainty.

And what criteria would be used to decide who gets to ride free? An objective answer to this question appears equally elusive. Finally, how can the population be monitored to make sure the proportion of free riders is maintained at the right level without unreasonably infringing on civil liberties and privacy rights? The task would be titanic. I think the only practical solution-and the solution that is in the best interest of liberty-is to just accept the free riding of the current regime as a fact of reality, and focus instead on persuading people about the benefits of vaccination.

Most states coax, but don't coerce, vaccination of children in the public school system. Two of the 50 states, Mississippi and West Virginia, are indeed coercive. But the remaining 48 allow parents to opt out for religious reasons, and 19 allow for some kind of philosophical objection. Some states require parents to read about the risks of opting out before exempting their children. Some require them to acknowledge in writing that, in the event of a major school outbreak of a contagious disease for which their child has not received immunization, he or she will be held out of school until the outbreak clears.

Private schools requiring vaccination of children as a precondition for admission is not coercive, since private education is a voluntary transaction. But even with the government school monopoly in existence today, immunization policy in at least 19 states is compatible with the non-aggression principle. As a medical doctor I am a strong advocate of vaccination against communicable and infectious diseases. I am irritated by the hysteria and pseudo-science behind much of the anti-vaccination literature and rhetoric. In my perfect world, everyone would agree with me and voluntarily get vaccinated against the gamut of nasty diseases for which we have vaccines.

In my perfect world, pregnant women also wouldn't smoke tobacco or drink alcohol until after delivery. But free societies are sometimes messy. To live in a free society, one must be willing to tolerate people who make bad decisions and bad choices, as long as they don't directly infringe on the rights of others. A strong argument can be made that it is self-defense to quarantine people who are infected with a disease-producing organism and are objectively threatening the contamination of others. But in such a case, the use of force against the disease carrier is based upon evidence that the carrier is contagious and may infect others.

Any mass immunization program that uses compulsion rather than persuasion will, on balance, do more harm to the well being of a free people than any good it was intended to convey. As a practicing primary care physician for the last 43 years, and as a parent since , I have followed the evolution of vaccination policy and science with interest, and not a little dismay. The number of vaccines given to children has increased significantly over the last 70 years, from four antigens in about five or six injections in to as many as 71 vaccine antigens in 53 injections by age 18 today the number varies slightly from state to state.

This includes four vaccines given in two shots to pregnant women and thus the developing fetus and 48 vaccine antigens given in 34 injections from birth to age six. Each vaccine preparation, in addition to the antigen or live virus, contains many other substances, including preservatives mercury, formaldehyde , adjuvants to hyperstimulate the immune response aluminum , gelatin, aborted fetal DNA, viral DNA, genetically modified DNA, antibiotics, and so on. We know that the young child's nervous and immune systems are actively developing and uniquely vulnerable, but I wonder how many thinking adults would themselves voluntarily submit to such an invasive drug regimen?

In the National Vaccine Injury Act was passed, prohibiting individuals who feel they have been harmed by a vaccine from taking vaccine manufacturers, health agencies, or health care workers to court. At the time, vaccine producers were threatening to curtail or discontinue production because of the mounting number of lawsuits claiming injury to children, mostly relating to immunization against diphtheria.

Once relieved of all liability, pharmaceutical corporations began rapidly increasing the number of vaccinations brought to market. Pharmaceutical companies are now actively targeting both adolescents and adults for cradle-to-grave vaccination against shingles, pneumonia, human papilloma virus, influenza, whooping cough, and meningitis. There are many more vaccines in the pipeline. Who wouldn't love a business model with a captive market, no liability concerns, free advertising and promotion by government agencies, and a free enforcement mechanism from local schools? It is, truly, a drug company's dream come true. Judging from what one reads and hears in the popular media, it is easy to conclude that the science is settled, that the benefits of each vaccine clearly outweigh the risks, and that vaccinations have played the critical role in the decline of deaths due to infectious diseases such as measles, whooping cough, and diphtheria, all of which claimed many lives in the past.

However even a cursory look at the available data quickly reveals that the mortality from almost all infectious disease was in steep decline well before the introduction of vaccination or antibiotics. In there were deaths from measles among a U. The takeaway here is that vaccination played a very minor role in the steep decline in mortality due to infectious disease during the late 19th century and early to mid- 20th century. Improved living standards, better nutrition, sanitary sewage disposal, clean water, and less crowded living conditions all played crucial roles. Current immunization policy relies on the oft-repeated assertion that vaccines are safe and effective. Yet the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Institute of Medicine, and even the American Academy of Pediatrics have acknowledged that serious reactions, including seizures, progressive encephalopathy, and death, can and do occur.

And there is ample reason to believe that the incidence of vaccine injury is strongly underreported. Rather than indulging in broad generalizations about immunization, a close examination of data regarding the recent pertussis outbreaks may help illustrate the complexity inherent in immune function, individual susceptibility, and the spread of infectious illness. In , there were numerous outbreaks of pertussis around the United States, notably in California, Washington, and Vermont. The majority of whooping cough infections in each state were reported among well-vaccinated adolescents and young teens.

There was also a slight increase in cases among infants younger than 1 year old. In Vermont, 74 percent of individuals diagnosed with whooping cough had been "fully and appropriately vaccinated" against pertussis. Vermont Deputy Commissioner of Health Tracy Dolan stated: "We do not have any official explanation for the outbreak and have not linked it to the philosophical exemption. However, we do not think those exemptors are driving this current wave. We think it is a bad thing that people aren't getting vaccinated or exempting, but we cannot blame this wave on that phenomenon.

It's clear that the pertussis vaccine is not very protective against a disease that already has a very low mortality, likely because the pertussis bacterium has developed resistance, much like bacteria become resistant to antibiotics over time. In a September article, The New England Journal of Medicine concluded that "protection against pertussis waned during the 5 years after the 5th dose of DTaP [a type of combination vaccine]. Recent studies suggest that immunized persons, once exposed to wild Bordetella pertussis bacteria, take longer to clear the pertussis bacterium from their respiratory tract than individuals who have had natural pertussis and thus gain natural immunity.

These vaccinated individuals can then become asymptomatic carriers of the bacteria and vectors for transmission. So those who choose to opt in can also, as Bailey puts it, "swing their microbes. Vaccine-induced immunity is not the same as naturally acquired immunity, and the much touted "herd immunity" resulting from mass vaccination is a far cry from natural herd immunity, the latter being much more protective, long-lasting, and transferrable to nursing infants who are then protected during their most vulnerable stage of development. The female giant seems to act like a servant to her husband; throughout the story he demands things and she brings them for him right away.

It is also interesting that the husband is only concerned with eating, sleeping and money, which is a very typical depiction of males. Kingdom Hearts as a Child-Centered Text. In the Playstation 2 game Kingdom Hearts , players are introduced to a young boy named Sora who is thrown into a struggle to save not one, but multiple worlds from a mysterious force known as the Heartless. Sora finds himself suddenly wielding a magical weapon called the Keyblade , which just happens to be the only thing that can fight the Heartless, and an artifact that Donald Duck and Goofy have been ordered by Mickey Mouse to find.

Sora has a different mission- he is looking for his two best friends, Riku and Kairi , who disappeared when his world was destroyed by the Heartless. Together, Sora , Donald and Goofy venture to different worlds, meet many other Disney characters, and battle the Heartless in hopes of restoring balance to the worlds. At first, Kingdom Hearts appears to be a light fairy-tale about good fighting evil, but it soon becomes apparent that Sora and childlike characters like Donald and Goofy are dealing with issues not typically found in adult-centered texts, and more importantly, they are doing it without the aid of just, authoritative adults. The adults in Kingdom Hearts are a far cry from the knowledgeable, caring, strong individuals typically found in adult-centered texts.

The first major group of adults consists of the villains from various Disney movies who are working together with the Heartless to take over their worlds. This group includes such characters as Jafar , Captain Hook and Maleficent, all of which are most likely already infamous to the player for their deeds in their respective films. The game presents them as completely irredeemable- they are evil, corrupt, and will stop at nothing to achieve their goals, even if it means dealing with the mysterious Heartless.

Of course, one by one their plans backfire and they are either defeated by Sora or betrayed by the Heartless, which is a rather adult-centered way of dealing with bad adults. However, the second major group of adults makes up for this. These characters are the heroes that the villains originally battled- Aladdin, Tarzan and Jack Skellington , for example. Upon arriving in Halloween Town , for example, Sora , Donald and Goofy are shocked to see that Jack has recruited the Heartless in the annual Halloween festival.

In addition to these two groups of adults, Kingdom Hearts features adults that appear to be in positions of authority, but in reality have little or no power over children. In the world of The Little Mermaid , King Triton has lost much of his control over Ariel- the scene where he originally destroys all of her treasures becomes much less devastating in the game, where he only destroys an item that is later revealed to be useless anyway. His mother is heard once at the beginning of the game, where she calls him for dinner, but the same exact scene shows Sora sneaking out of the house through his bedroom window. Mickey Mouse is the closest thing to a central authority figure the game has because he is the main reason why Donald and Goofy are exploring the worlds, and thus, the reason why Sora is brought along.

However, it is interesting to note that Mickey is more of a childlike character than an adult, due to his being an animal. In addition to Mickey Mouse, Donald and Goofy are also very childlike. Donald still has a short temper and is very annoyed at the idea of the legendary Keyblade Master being a kid. He and Sora do not get along very well, but their arguments are small and childish, and they usually make amends shortly after. Goofy tries hard to be the mediator between the two, but he usually ends up doing what Donald tells him to avoid causing more trouble. However, Goofy soon realizes that Sora is too good a friend to just abandon and has a change of heart. Sora himself also has a huge amount of agency, possibly more than anyone else in the game.

His agency is represented by the Keyblade , which is regarded as a symbol of great power in every world he visits. When he loses it, he can only get it back by realizing that its strength comes from his heart. Sora receives the Keyblade by resisting the Heartless when his world is destroyed- it recognizes that he is strong and good-hearted. When he learns of his destiny as the Keyblade Master, he embraces it rather than running from such a huge responsibility, if only because he hopes that it will lead him to his missing friends. However, he realizes that he is being used to hurt his friends and fights back. In an attempt to atone for the things he did while working for the villains, Riku offers to help Sora seal off the Heartless, but this act will leave him trapped with the Heartless as a result.

Sora is distressed at the thought of being separated again, but Riku insists, and his confidence in Sora allows them to seal away the Heartless. Kingdom Hearts still has some elements common to adult-centered texts, one of which is the mostly conservative plot. Sora is trying to restore the norm instead of change it, and the forces trying to cause change and disrupt the balance are the Heartless and the Disney villains. Sora also learns lessons throughout the game by interacting with the various characters within the Disney worlds.

The lessons are highly didactic and Sora ultimately accepts them, but at the end of the game, it is clear to the player that he is still given the choice of acknowledging them or not. Finally, there is the question of what the Heartless truly represent. There is no doubt that the Heartless are pure evil- they corrupt everything they touch and bring out the very worst in anyone who deals with them. Then again, the Heartless could also represent a more child-centered view- that children have the ability to resist evil.

Sora wields the Keyblade , which is the only weapon that can truly stop the Heartless, and he gains it by resisting the darkness. Meanwhile, Riku , who is a few years older than Sora and therefore less childlike, willingly joins the Heartless. Also, the adults who indulge in the evil perpetrated by the Heartless end up being defeated, or worse, completely swallowed by the darkness. However, the game makes it clear that it is not childlike innocence that allows Sora , Donald and Goofy to effectively fight the Heartless- as a child-centered theme, the Heartless represent a false sense of maturity and power that can only be overcome by a strong sense of right and wrong, friendship, and courageousness, which the trio have gained by working together.

Riku also realizes this after being used by the Heartless, and therefore he also gains the ability to fight them. While Kingdom Hearts features didactic lessons and a conservative storyline, the focus of the game lies with the childlike characters. Sora has only enlisted himself in the fight against the Heartless because he hopes it will lead him to his friends. The Disney characters he meets throughout his journey act more childlike than he does, and even Mickey Mouse, the central authority figure of the game, is childlike.

While there are some adult-centric ideas present in Kingdom Hearts , the game is mostly a child-centered text because the children and childlike characters act with a great amount of agency and deal with things that are typically not associated with common assumptions about childhood, while adult figures are either powerless, bad, or flawed and complicated themselves. The simple story relates an incident of a flood that enables Princess Molly the Messy, a member of a tidy and neat royal family, to rescue her them through her messiness, and ultimately shows the value of her individuality.

The main area where Tyler strays from classic patterns involves the message of the story. In fact, Tyler even suggests that messiness may not only come in handy, but it could also be a means of rescue. Thus, Molly never disobeys her parents because a specific request, which she could obey, is never present. In essence, Tyler portrays Molly as innocent and kindhearted, sharing her space and using all she has for good, even though her disorderly ways would typically be naughty behavior. Tyler spins a web of opposites, showing innocence in a slovenly room.

Clearly, a messy room relates almost universally to all children who might enjoy a tale about this quality. However, Tyler treats messiness much differently than many parents would by showing its benefits, not its repulsiveness. Most children posses messiness seemingly inherently and would revel in a book about their way of life. Tyler provides a character to identify with, no matter who the young reader is. Tumble Tower represents an interesting blend of standard formats and counter-culture messages. Though the story is didactic, its message teaches the individuality of personality in children. Even though the movie is one of the most popular Disney films it shows some underlying examples of interpellation. There are also some issues of agency that display the intricate way that Mary Poppins changes the degree of agency in the household.

When watching the film and trying to figure out who has agency over whom it seemed difficult because of the fact that there are several characters that are involved. When the film begins everything seems to be typical when it comes to agency. Banks is the man of the house and tells everyone what to do and everyone in return obeys him. The first song Mr. Banks sings is about how proud he was of how orderly his life was.

He felt that it was his duty to give commands and do everything in the exact order that they were supposed to be done in a stereotypical sense. It seemed that all was in order and that order was given by Mr. Banks alone. The minute that Mary Poppins comes into their door the agency is taken away from Mr. Banks immediately. Even though he has no idea that he no longer has power because of the fact that Mary Poppins is wise enough to know that if she lets him think that he tells her what to do and that he comes up with all of the ideas then he will never know.

This does create a slight fight for power between Mr. Banks and Mary Poppins because Mary always has to stay one step ahead of Mr. Banks and he is always a very close step behind her. When the dynamics of the household become so happy and seemingly perfect Mr. Banks is angry because he can almost feel himself losing his power which is what causes him to become so bossy. When things involve Jane and Michael they are not directly given any agency but seems to be able to take some of the agency away in certain circumstances.

Anytime they seemed to disobey an adult it was either a misunderstanding or they were quickly turned around. The only obvious time that agency was displayed by the children was when Michael was at the bank and he was adamant that his money go to feeding the birds instead of in the bank. When Mary, Bert and the children jumped into the picture they were able to go out on their own for awhile without supervision but that would be the person with the agency allowing them to have a little leeway. Mary gave them chances to be their own judge but she was always there to pull them back and take over when things were out of hand. She allowed agency to be taken when there was a lesson to be taught in letting them go.

After Mary has accomplished what she came to do, which would be to show the family how to be a family and how to have fun and take the time they have and cherish it, she allowed the agency to be taken back by Mr. It was very interesting to see how manipulative Mary could be when dealing with people and getting her way; it was apparent that she was an expert at stealing agency from others. This film drips with interpellation even though it is not always obvious. The first example that comes up is the fact that Mr. Banks has the final say in everything and that is played out as if it should be that way. I found it ironic that the spunk Mrs. Banks had when Mr. Banks was not around was astounding but that changed as soon as he enters the picture.

Banks is home she is extremely submissive. For example when she is leaving the house to go to a protest Mr. Though there may be some sarcasm meant by the writers of the film it still says to society that it is okay to have your own opinions as a women but when it comes to her husband she better be obedient and believe what he says. Banks opinions are totally contradictory to things that Mr. Banks says but when she talks to him she agrees with everything he says. Her description is rosy cheeks, never cross or cheery disposition, she is thin, and this is what most would consider very ladylike as well; this all points to what women are continuously told to be.

When Mary, Bert and the children are in the painting and they get on Merry-go-round horses Mary rode the lavender one with a smug ladylike look on its face, Jane rode the pink one with long eyelashes, Michael rode the blue one with slit eyes and Bert rode the orange one. Even though this was a small detail of the movie it still displays what girls and boys should be like and what colors they should wear. When the children went to the bank with their father the whole trip was centered on Michael, even though Jane went along he was the one that was supposed to invest his money and see what his dad does.

The thought of Jane investing her money in the bank was never even thought of or even the idea that she had any money. Men are supposed to take care of all the money and be the ones that earn it and that is what the whole bank trip reinforced. Michael always seems to be the one taking the action, in the end when they go fly a kite Michael is the one flying it with his father and Jane and Mrs. Banks are in the background watching. The film interpellates us to think that the men are supposed to be the ones acting on their feelings and saving people and even thinking. The only dominant role that a women plays in the film are the cook, maid and nanny; Mary Poppins is a controversial character because of her ability to do as she pleases even around men but she still plays right into the stereotype that the male should be in the dominant seat.

The film does seem to have a hint of sarcasm about the role of the women as stated earlier but in the end it seems to be just a bit of humor that does not disprove the interpellation. Things seem to all fall into the stereotypical place that society likes for them to be in both in terms of agency and interpellation. It seems as if in this case interpellation coincides with agency which seems to put the happy ending to the movie. The movie is about a colony of ants that spends most of its time gathering grain for the grasshoppers, who intimidate and frighten them into doing it.

It leaves the ants little time to gather food for themselves before the rainy season begins, but it is a part of their culture, and so they continue to repeat the tradition year after year. In the beginning of the movie, the ants are preparing their yearly offering when it is ruined by Flik , an ant in the colony. The grasshoppers are very angry and demand that they gather twice the amount of food before the last leaf falls. He finds what he thinks are warrior bugs, but are actually circus bugs, who in turn think that Flik is a talent scout. They travel back with him to the colony, impress everyone, and then discover their real purpose for being there.

They end up staying however, and the ants come up with a plan to keep away the grasshoppers—they make a bird to scare them. They all work together, but in the end their plan is foiled. Flik , however, stands up for the colony, the grasshoppers are scared away, and the head grasshopper, Hopper, gets eaten by a bird. In the end the ants no longer have to gather food for the grasshoppers—only themselves.

The first character I wanted to talk about that demonstrates resistance of interpellation is Flik. The main problem is that through trying to make things better for the colony, he brings in new ideas that the colony is not willing to accept. You wanna help us build this thing, then get rid of that machine, get back in line, and pick grain like everyone else! He is almost repressively interpellated , in that the other ants try to force him to act like everyone else. An example of this is while the ants are in line to deposit their grains onto the pile; a leaf falls on the path of the line, and the ant it falls in front of freaks out.

When that is impossible, they flip out. Flik resists interpellation, which also provides him with agency. There are several examples of this throughout the movie, one of which is the way that he stands up to Hopper. In this way, Flik gains agency because he acts on behalf of himself and admits that he resisted interpellation purposefully. Another example of Flik gaining agency is when he left the colony. The colony did not like that someone tried to be different than what was expected of them, and were willing to punish Flik because of it—another example of how their interpellation is repressive. Flik , however, decides to go off on his own to try again to help his colony.

He acts as a free agent in that sense—it was his idea to leave, although he did have to get permission. Another resister of interpellation is the ladybug. He usually gets pretty angry when this happens, and tries to inform the other bugs that he is a male and being a ladybug does not necessarily make him a lady. In the end, however, he becomes more feminine, due to his affiliation with the Blueberries. In contrast is Heimlich, the caterpillar who desperately wants to fit in with his species by growing wings and becoming a butterfly. However, he is incredibly happy because as a caterpillar, he wanted so badly to go through the same transformation that other caterpillars go through—due to ideological interpellation. In this way, Heimlich is a foil for the ladybug—they represent opposing desires and goals.

Additionally, Dot is a marked contrast to her sister, Atta. Dot is very rebellious and attempts to gain agency in a few ways, the first of which is trying to use her wings to fly before they were fully grown. However, her desire to fly could also be attributed to interpellation—she wants to be able to do what everyone else is able to. But Dot also demonstrates agency by leading the Blueberries into hiding from the grasshoppers when they come to collect their grain at the end of the season. She goes on her own to find Flik to bring him back and help the rest of the colony—and this time she is able to fly. Her ability to fly and the complete growth of her wings can be interpreted as a symbol of her independence and power.

When she finds Flik , she gives him a rock to represent a seed to remind him of what he told her in the beginning of the movie: she may be just a small seed, but she will one day grow into a big, strong tree and be able to do anything. So Dot, the little girl, teaches Flik , the young man, a lesson, which helps her to gain agency. Atta is ideologically interpellated to believe that she must be infallible in order to govern the colony. She seems very rule-oriented and unable to function unless she knows what it is she is expected to do.

She seems to be unable to simply observe a situation and come up with an answer—she has to know what was done in the past, what her mother did, etc. However, by the end of the movie, Atta gains agency, in that she is crowned as Queen by her mother, who apparently decides that she is ready. Atta also resists interpellation—she saves Flik by grabbing him and flying off with him. He tells her to fly away from the ant hill while it is raining which is very dangerous for the ants , and she responds that the ant hill is the other way. Some of the characters in the movie resisted interpellation in a healthy way, and some were interpellated in a healthy way, but some were also interpellated in an unhealthy way. Meta-textual sources call attention to themselves as a created thing by being self-referential, breaking the fourth wall or defamiliarizing their audience.

This causes the source, whether it is television, movies or books to recognize itself as what it is, and for the audience to also realize that they are indeed only an audience and are not actually a part of what they are witnessing. Meta-textual sources do not offer the experience in which one gets lost in what they are watching or reading, instead it causes the audience to do the opposite and remember exactly what it is that they are doing. This paper will reflect some of these meta-textual ideas by giving examples of ways these ideas can be portrayed. I loved the close nit family that they shared and when watching it nearly every night on television after school, I began to feel a part of it as well.

Those girls were my sisters and the experiences they went through seemed to always be exactly what I was feeling as well. Sitting in the middle of my living room floor I would be completely engrossed in what was happening on TV that I would not even remember where I actually was. The final episode was tragic because it seemed like my family was leaving me forever; however, that alone was not enough but the editor of the series probably made the biggest mistake it ever could. Once the episode was over, without any commercial interruptions, the cast lined up across the kitchen floor and took a bow and I heard the roar of an audience.

The camera paneled up, through the fourth wall of the set and showed me what I never knew had existed, because there, giving a standing ovation, were tons of fans of the show watching as the cast took their final bow. Not once in any episode had I ever wondered why I had never seen that fourth wall of the kitchen, bedroom, living room or garage, instead it seemed like I was actually there in the midst of it all with the fourth wall behind me. Finding out that Full House was actually a television show and that Michelle, Stephanie and DJ were all actors and were not related to each other or me in any way completely broke my heart, and I still have not forgotten that feeling to this day. Breaking the fourth wall completely ruins the feeling of getting lost in the episode, and takes away all closeness the audience ever shared with the cast.

In the movie Monty-Python and the Holy Grail, the cast chooses to act without the use of many props, or the ones that you would typically expect, and also the plot and scene location is oddly chosen; yet, the movie gives off the appearance that all of this is taking place during medieval times. The main character is acting as if he is the King, and goes throughout the countryside, not on horseback but followed by his sidekick with clinking coconuts, claiming that he needs to find the Holy Grail. Watching throughout the entire movie the audience is thinking that they have been taken back in time, until the very end when cop cars pull up to the actors, get out and start arresting them.

The director closes the scene and all of the extra characters in the background take a knee and rest while the cops are asking what is going on. The main character claims that they are just filming a movie, however the cops still shut down their attempts anyway. This is a prime example of a movie being self-referential because it dedicated an entire scene to show the audience that they are not back in medieval times, but are actually in the rural countryside of modern day Europe. The first scary movie that I ever saw was Scream when I was about eleven years old. I had never been more terrified in my life, and the first time I saw little through cracked fingers over my face. But as I continued to watch it, literally over ten times, and as the sequels came out they became my favorite and always promised a good scare.

Then during the first few years of high school, stupid comedies began to be the biggest blockbuster hits and with these came the release of Scary Movie. At first it did not seem appealing to me, but eventually I was dragged by one of my friends and this comedy brought about an entire new meaning to my favorite scary movie series. Seeing that goofy looking scream mask with the tongue sticking out, and watching the horrible acting of a girl running from the killer completely defamiliarized me to the movies that I loved most. I wish I had never seen those movies because then I would still be able to sit down and watch them and get a good scare every now and then. If one knows that what they are going to be seeing is funny, fictional and is established in order to provide them with a good laugh, then I feel that meta-textual sources are capable of providing great entertainment for the people that experience it.

The book does have an emotionally powerful story that shows a tree sacrificing itself over the years to make the boy happy. In many ways the tree is like the boys mother, who would sacrifice anything for their child just to bring them happiness. The tree having human qualities, such as speech and the ability to feel emotions, gives the book a fantasy aspect which is one of the common assumptions found by Nodelman. The tree being represented as a mother figure is used to challenge many of the common assumptions. The tree starts out loving the boy for no apparent reason besides he is there like a mother would love a newborn baby. As a child the boy plays all the time with the tree and as he grows up he begins to only come to the tree when he wants something.

The tree acts as an old woman being visited by her son in a retirement home, asking the boy to spend time with it by climbing up the trunk and swinging from the vines, only to have him wanting material objects. Instead of money and the old family house, the boy takes the trees precious apples and the majority of the trees body to build a house and a boat. The ending is bittersweet for the tree which gets what it wanted all along, to just be with the boy, but the tree has been reduced to an old stump because of him. The tree is like an old woman who sacrificed her medication money for their son and is dying because of it, but still feels happiness to have that same son come and visit them.

The ambiguous ending does challenge the assumption of teaching valuable lessons about life in a fun way. I am very tired. The image of the only human character in the book being shown right before death is definitely not a typical happily ever after ending. The two characters in The Giving Tree rely on each for different things. The Tree relies on the boy for his happiness and company, while the Boy relies on the Tree for the different objects it can provide him. The two are on common grounds at the end when the only thing the Tree can offer the boy is a seat and its company, and all the boy wants is a place to sit. The Boy does love the tree, but smiles while carving his name into the tree which would hurt a living emotional creature such as the tree.

The trees desperation for love seems rather pathetic as it willing gives up its body to him, also the fact that everything it gives up was its own idea and not the Boys adds to her desperation. A positive role model would be confident and show dignity, which are two qualities that neither of these characters posses. At the start of the story when the Boy is actually a boy, he seems like more of a role model possessing innocent qualities much like the children reading the book would contain.

The child innocence the boy possessed is the only stage of the Boys life any child could truly understand. The desires for a wife and a home are things which children never desire. But they are aware of these things from interacting with the adults in their life, just not able to fully comprehend the need for such grown up things. A child could most likely understand the Tree and its need to make the Boy happy since many children would do anything to make their parents happy.

One of the most disturbing ways that the Tree tries to make the boy happy is when it tells him to cut it down so he can make a boat out of it. This leaves the tree as nothing more but a stump, which is what is left of a tree after it was chopped down and killed. This makes the image of the Boy carrying away the tree seem frightening because its true that the branches and the apples could be seen as part of its body but taking away its trunk seems like taking away its whole body, leaving its soul in the stump. So, cutting the tree down is the emotional equivalent of cutting a character in half and could be a frightening image to many children. The theme is evident in the story and should be realized by most children after multiple readings and talks with their parents.

When I was little, there was no public library where I lived. A service was started when I was five years old called The Bookmobile that would come to our county every three weeks. It would park at specific sights and people could come and check out books or read magazines. To this day, I vividly remember the first book I ever checked out—Dr. I was absolutely fascinated by the book. I remember how shiny and new it was compared to the Bible story books and fairy tale books that I had, and how it was filled with wild and wacky looking creatures.

I read it over and over and tried my best to see how fast and far I could read the different sections without taking a breath. I like green eggs and ham! However, if you were searching for a book that reinforced the typical case prototype which Perry Nodelman wrote about, then this book could be the poster child for this type of book. In this book, if you count the hyphenated name of the character Sam-I-Am, there are only two words in the entire book that are larger than five letters long.

The other word is anywhere, which like Sam-I-Am, can be separated into words of less than five letters. Not only the words are simple, but the illustrations are simple, being a few steps above a line drawing. The creatures are extremely imaginative, but even though they are fantastic, they are not in any way threatening, for threatening and scary creatures are a no-no in the typical case prototype. I could not, would not, with a fox.

It also reinforces the assumptions that children have short attention spans and learning must be made fun. For instance, while the book itself is fairly long for a picture book, most of the pages contain little text. Also the rhyming, rhythmic nature of the words encourages young readers to make a game of the rhymes, just as I did as a child. Green Eggs and Ham also supports the contention that books should teach a lesson or moral. This lesson is also not given as a directive that should be obeyed without question. And you may like them. It is also very adult centered in that the book has a happy ending. This friendship is evidenced by a change in attitude and body language, and most obviously by his putting his arm around Sam-I-Am at the end of the book It does deviate, however, from the traditional child and adult roles in some ways.

One way it does this is in the characteristics of the two main characters. The larger character is also childlike because of his very stubbornness, which in the assumptions Nodelman wrote about could be considered the opposite of maturity and adulthood. It is possible this role reversal was done as a devise to stress how unreasonable it is to act in this way. Being stubborn and unreasonable is the opposite of how an adult would act, so therefore this type of behavior is shown to be even more undesirable and incorrect and children should strive to behave like Sam-I-Am.

While this book is in most ways a typical case prototype, this is not necessarily a bad thing. Every child is different, with different reading levels, interests, and levels of maturity. To say that only one style of book is good for children and should be read by children is to limit them and possibly foster bad connotations with reading.

I know that this is not what Nodelman is advocating; rather he is attempting to point out that there is a lack of logic and consistency in these assumptions. I loved this book as a child and still love it now. Green Eggs and Ham gave me an opportunity to play with and enjoy reading at a level I was comfortable with at that time. It also encouraged me to try and make up my own rhymes and fantastic creatures. I know that I loved this book as a child and I still love it now. All of my boys loved it and my ten year old still takes it out sometimes just to have the fun of reading, listening, or playing with the rhymes.

But the Lemony Snicket books clearly do not hold the listed assumptions as truth, instead presenting the strong, smart Baudelaire children to prove each generalization false. It opens with a death, features the children in uncomfortable and miserable situations, and describes only darkness and pain. The characters are not what one would expect either. Violet is a fourteen-year-old inventor, Klaus is twelve and a brilliant reader, and even the infant Sunny is very bright but has trouble saying what she means with only baby-talk. Adult characters are either evil geniuses or bumbling fools who refuse to take the orphans seriously.

The Baudelaire orphans cannot turn to a trusted adult for help in their hardships; they must rely on their own intellect and cunning to save themselves. Indeed, it is the adults that they are most often fighting against. This is also quite uncommon. Usually, grown-ups are there to help and guide the children; it is still quite controversial for an adult to be portrayed in such a negative light. Furthermore, children are conventionally shown to need help and guidance, but here the Baudelaires prove themselves to be remarkably self-sufficient. The children are intelligent, eager to learn, and able to think about and react to the situation at hand. Another relatively uncommon feature of this book is that it is not didactic in any traditional sense.

The adults in the story are certainly not role models, and they do not display behavior that a parent would wish their child to imitate. The children succeed because they are different from the adults, not because they have been assimilated into miniature versions of them. This is most readily shown when Mr. Poe can think is that he might be using words that are too big for them. But this is what the children are used to dealing with. And rather than struggling against a dragon or monster, they fight against the adults who try to take advantage of them.

The Bad Beginning goes counter to every traditional assumption listed in the beginning of this paper. And yet, the Series of Unfortunate Events has become one of the most popular and highly-regarded series around. He is passing out book reports, showing his superiority by dressing in a suit and standing tall, requiring the sitting students, whose papers he just evaluated, to look up to him. The viewer then sees Cory putting on a clown nose and making silly faces. His behavior is quite a contradiction to the composed and dignified teacher in the scene, leaving the audience with an impression that adults are more perfect than children. As Mr. Feeney continues to pass out the book reports he congratulates a student, named Rick, for his efforts.

He is no longer smiling and appears confused. Still wearing the clown nose, Cory tells Mr. Feeney, who unlike Cory, is very collected in his appearance, thoughts, and behavior informs Cory that Rick worked hard for his C and Mr. Feeney respects him for it. The teacher then looks down at Cory still wearing his large red foam nose and suggests that he not waste his time being the class clown. He then contradicts himself, by looking at the test, because he wants Mr.

Feeney to think that he is a genius. His mom and younger sister, Morgan, are discussing when Morgan can get a Halloween costume. The mom tells Morgan that she is very busy with work but that Eric, the oldest son, will take her shopping. Morgan becomes impatient and again announces her desire for a Halloween costume. Eric agrees to help but can not do it unassisted. He still needs his mom to take them to the store and his dad, when he gets off from work, to then pick them up. Morgan returns home with a costume of a Zombie. She looks at Eric, giving blame to her older son, and announces that she wanted Morgan to pick out her own costume.

This is giving the child agency and allowing her to express and expand her own imagination. She explains that Morgan picks out her own clothes because they like to give her freedom of expression. This is another example of interpellation, because whoever decided clothes have to match or what should be considered a match? It seems as though they are trying to protect her from the messages of disappointment that they are sending to their older son Eric. The director, in this scene, displays an agreement with the common assumption that children are innocent and need to be protected.

Feeney congratulates him verbally but appears doubtful through his facial expressions. Cory is worried that Mr. Feeney knows he cheated and that he will tell his parents. He announces that he does not like lying to his parents. However, they fail to realize that it was their initial mistake that caused the adult to give the detention sentence. He knows that adults assume that he is fallible and will love and take care of him despite his mistakes. The bell then rings and Mr. Feeney announces that he wants to talk to Cory. The student looks nervous and gets out of his seat slowly, as though he is about to meet his death. Cory looks as though he is going to be physically hurt, though he knows Mr.

Feeney is only going to talk to him about his high IQ score. This quote also reinforces his admiration of adults because he is associating Mr. Feeney sits down with Cory and asks if there is anything he wants to share. He explains that Cory will be transferred to an advanced school where the school is committed to giving children all that they deserve. Cory is aware that his parents and teacher know that he cheated on the IQ test. Before finally admitting to his parents that he found the answers to the IQ test, Cory takes a second intelligence test. This test reveals that he has the IQ of an average sixth grader. It is this common assumption that adds to the adult-centeredness of the episode because adults like Mr. Feeney are portrayed with high intelligence, while the child is not corrected when calling himself a moron.

At the end of the episode Cory tells his parents and teacher the truth; which gains him the respect he so desired from his teacher. The episode is didactic because Cory has learned that he should tell adults the truth and he should never cheat. He accepts the fact that he is inferior to adults, a point which I do not like about the episode, but a typical adult-centered characteristic. This positive portrayal of parents makes it impossible for the viewer to be mad at the adults for punishing Cory, especially since Cory realizes that he deserves punishment, and therefore, is not upset.

The fairy tale, The Little Mermaid was story that I could not go to sleep without hearing. I was about six years old when I first heard this story and it allowed my imagination to meander into the world of mermaids. Whether I was at the beach swimming like a mermaid in the ocean or simply reading the story over and over, I was fascinated by the mermaid world under sea. I was nearly obsessed with mermaids and wished I could be one of them. This story created the magic in my imagination; however, as I read the story more and more, I came to see the practicality in it.

Maybe I was convinced that there really were mermaids out there so the story became practical to me? To illustrate, The Little Mermaid portrays a young mermaid with these typical characteristics, but Andersen takes it a step further. The mermaids in each version of the story differ greatly, especially the reasons behind each mermaid's wish to go to land with the people. Andersen's mermaid wants to be a human being so she can have an eternal soul after she dies. She is driven to become a human. Their world seemed to her to be much larger than her own. Disney made The Little Mermaid a traditional fairy tale, because Andersen's ideas could not be translated into a modern cartoon that was socially accepted for children.

So Disney used the classic battle between good and evil, which is typically understood everywhere, instead of the mermaid's battle within herself as Andersen wrote. In my mind, fairy tales represent the good conquering over the evil after a significant challenge. In contrast, Andersen displays the sea witch winning the battle. The little mermaid does not look back on her life under the sea, but looks forward to her chance to attain an eternal soul. Why would the sea witch say such a thing that might change the little mermaids mind about becoming a human? I assume that the reasons for this line may be to enforce the adult figure in the story.

The sea witch is older; therefore, she is wise and guides the young mermaid. For example, Disney reveals the story to have a happy ending in that the little mermaid and the Prince marry. One could conceive the ending to have different meanings. The little mermaid had failed and evil had won. In the original Andersen story, The Little Mermaid , she does not marry the Prince, which is what seems to be what she should do. Still, she learned to love unconditionally, and did not turn into sea foam, as mermaids do. She ascended and obtained a human soul from entering the daughters of air. The daughters of air are portrayed to be a spiritual movement. When I read this story as a child, I can see why I related the daughters of air to heaven.

Finally, by losing her life, she wins the hope of immortality because of her years of good deeds. It is almost like viewing death as a reward in this story because she in fact did win and gain her immortal soul. After reading the story at age nineteen, what really struck me was how the little mermaid did not get what she thought she wanted, but ended up with something much more important or valuable: her immortality. This means that they fit what we would assign to children right or not.

This, among other terms, will be used to weigh through the book Giraffes? By Dr. Doris Haggis-On-Whey to assess how it relates to other books. It fits the look of an educational book. What I mean by this is that when I think of an educational book, I associate lots of photographs, small amounts of text simply to explain the background information or captions to pictures , and a particular layout for their pages. This vision of a particular educational book is founded in the strictly educational, typical case prototype books I used to read as I was younger; the Eyewitness book series used to be my absolute favorite book to read for the very same reasons listed above.

They disguised learning to be fun and painless. To continue on, this book has a very similar layout to that series. Part of a series itself, the authors and designers purposely tried to model the visual presentation of an Eyewitness look in this satiric series, as to help create its ambiance. On every single page there is at least one photograph in which the surrounding text pertains. The diagrams or drawings are all clearly labeled, as well as the photographs, to keep things clear. Moreover, there is a pocket on the back inside cover of the book where they provide several activities to complete. Each diagram has a specific purpose; this purpose is to support the text, and bring it clarity. More importantly than the pictures or layout of the book, is the actual text.

As mentioned earlier, at first glance the book looks like it set the standards for the typical case prototype book. When one reads the text, however, they are shocked from the lack of validity, completely crushing any thought of this book fitting the typical case prototype. I believe this is true, because the text of a book is far more important than the pictures. The book goes out of its way to make fun of all educational writing. Every situation presented in the book is presented as fact, no matter how farfetched it is. It is as if the book is telling joke after joke, and keeping a straight face the whole time.

The text is comprised only fictional scenarios or facts, while the pictures and layout design lead you to believe otherwise. You see, giraffes love drinking fruit juices…but their bodies have no real use for fruit juice, so it all trickles down to their legs where it stays and squishes around. This is only one example of how the book is so unbelievable; on every single page, there are multiple examples of such ridiculous statements.

The mere appearance of the book is shockingly similar to those I have read as a tool to induce learning. Instead of being completely false, the book Giraffes? Does contain a small amount of educational material in it. For instance, on page 48, there are two diagrams of fish; one of the colored pictures labels the outside organs of the fish, while the other informatively labels some of the inside organs. The same case occurs on pages 6, 9, 13, 38, and A child reading this book would be able to sort out that this piece of information is correct, compared to the extremely farfetched text of the story.

Because the whole rest of the book is in outfield, learning about the fish is somewhat disguised. Even if the reader has some negative stigma towards learning, they will not realize what is happening. The reader is subconsciously focused on not believing anything about the giraffes. When they see information that is true, they do not remember that they are learning. These comparatively small diagrams in the book are a very good reference for information. For this reason, I feel that the book has both typical and atypical case traits.

The appearance of the book and hidden learning tools are created for children to induce learning. The ridiculous text, however, completely bashes any hope of it fitting into the typical case mold. The book is just too progressive and turns how we would normally react to a story from natural to unnatural. The readers have to be conscious to how they respond to such material, as opposed to a conservative book that reinforces old ideas or beliefs. This defamiliarization causes us to challenge all that we have known to be true about educational books. When I read those books, I would never give a second thought to whether or not what I was reading was true.

I would completely trust the narrator and authors. After reading a book that tricks you to believe that it might be true, I will never be able to read an Eyewitness book in the same light. That is the heart of defamialization ; it permanently causes something to be looked at differently. One tool that the author uses to defamiliarize the readers is metafiction. The irony in this quote, is that what the authors are claiming is so absurd, that there is no way it would be obvious to anyone.

No one would know to think that, because it is not based on any hint of truth. This concept is one of several that help explain the term metafiction. In metafiction , not only does the narrator do too much or too little, the lines between the fictional world and the real world are blurred. The book is doing something, whether it is a quote, picture, etc. After reading the above mentioned quote on page 9, and also looking at pages 7 and 13, it becomes clear that the author is drawing attention to the absurdity of the text. This tool is used to heighten the satiric nature of the book. From pure common sense, we know what the text claims is not true about fruit juices ; such claims have no scientific standing.

When the author also jokes later in the book about personifying words, we have to second guess that as well. This silly statement about words calls attention to the fact that the reader is actually reading. It is something used to make the readers rethink how they are conditioned to react to books. This challenge is seen as progressive, and breaking the mold. Essentially, Giraffes? This film illustrates the main character, an eight-year-old boy named Kevin McCallister , as a mischievous yet sincere child who when left alone in his house, discovers that family relationships are a crucial part of growing up.

Home Alone also showcases many stereotypes of children that coincide with the typical case prototypes discussed in class. Metatextual concepts are featured in this movie as well, which help to involve the child audience. These concepts, as well as the character of Kevin, discover the underlying meaning of the movie. He not only breaks free of the typical child roles and standards, he is able to use the thought of them to his advantage when confronted with two burglars attempting to break into his home.

By Kevin saving his house, he realizes he is much older than he thinks and begins to appreciate his life and what is in it, mostly his family. This interpretation of Home Alone presents more than it just being a humorous movie about a boy and two robbers. Once his family leaves for a Christmas vacation in Paris and he is left all alone in his house, Kevin McCallister gains total agency in this film. He no longer has any parents to tell him what and what not to do. Now, Kevin can run around the house and jump on beds, while having no one to tell him to stop. A perfect example of Kevin displaying agency is when he makes a total mess in the kitchen, eats a huge amount of junk food and ice cream and watches a movie that is not appropriate for him.

The roles of child and adult are also reversed. Although Kevin is doing all these things that would normally get him in trouble, his parents are portrayed as the irresponsible ones for leaving their child alone in the house. Home Alone does a great deal of displaying typical child case prototypes throughout the film. Adult perceptions of children are especially construed through the two burglars, Marv and Harry. The two men are completely confident that they can break into the McCallister home because Kevin is the only one there. We can take him. Kevin was completely aware of the situation but still continued to fight the burglars because he knew he had to defend his house. Protecting himself and his house became more important to Kevin than doing what stereotypical children do and run away.

In one particular scene, there is a reference made that does go against these typical case prototypes, which is also one we have discussed in class. He then tells her a story of how he left his child alone one day at a funeral parlor. This character was implying that children are not permanently damaged by certain experiences and I think this is an incredibly important feature of the movie as a whole. If his family leaving him alone for days had negatively affected Kevin, then he would not have recovered and would not have learned the lessons he did by being put in that situation.

The less obvious element of Home Alone is the metatextual concept. Throughout this film, Kevin is constantly talking to the audience, because no other characters are around him. The narrator-like characteristic Kevin has in this movie makes the audience aware that he is talking directly to them, letting the viewers know what is going on and what Kevin is doing. There is one moment where Kevin actually does speak directly to the audience, looking straight into the camera. Kevin breaking the fourth wall and creating this metatextual moment in the movie lets the audience in on the upcoming events as if it were a secret between them and the narrator. Another concept I noted is the deus ex machina role. In the film, this role is played by the elderly neighbor, who Kevin is afraid of for the majority of the movie.

However, after talking and the old man admits that he has become a different person because of lost relationships in his life, Kevin provides him with advice as well as takes it himself. Kevin becomes aware that he needs his family and does not want to lose them like the old man lost his. So the two agree to change and do something about their unfortunate situations. After this conversation, Kevin returns home but once he has used up all of his traps to mislead the two burglars, he runs next door to call the police. The men are aware of his game this time and catch him before he is able to.

Then, when it looks like there is no escape for Kevin, the old neighbor hits both burglars and saves Kevin, taking him out of the house and away from danger. Throughout Home Alone , Kevin embraces being a kid with no parents to listen to and no roles to follow. However, over the days he is left by himself, he demonstrates a great amount of change. At first he is scared of Marv and Harry trying to break into his house. Kevin recognizes that he must take some control of the situation, because riding sleds down the stairs and turning the whole house upside down is unacceptable behavior when there are criminals trying to break into his house.

Kevin begins to take on typical adult roles, including going grocery shopping, doing laundry and washing dishes. These are not chores most eight-year-olds complete on a daily basis. Kevin is forced to become more mature throughout the story and does so by not only outsmarting burglars, but also by accepting the fact that his family is important to him and wanting them to come back. Even though Kevin McCallister displays a great deal of agency, I do believe Home Alone is more adult-centered than child-centered. His family is the center of the story and is the element that is continuously referred to.

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