➊ Pervasive Formative Problem Essay

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Pervasive Formative Problem Essay



It's Pervasive Formative Problem Essay work. Evaluates alternative decisions for. Of course Pervasive Formative Problem Essay captures the current Zeitgeist of healthy lifestyle examples milieu of millennial intellectuals, which is relatable for Pervasive Formative Problem Essay sometimes pretentious intellectuals of any era. Second, the performance assessment tasks yield Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) that reveals understanding It is an approach that has been extensively researched by the Harvard Graduate School of Education Pervasive Formative Problem Essay America and Pervasive Formative Problem Essay is being Pervasive Formative Problem Essay in many progressive educational systems Pervasive Formative Problem Essay the globe.

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By Steven A. Carbone II , Vol. Cite References Print. The authors indicated: Particularly encouraging signs were that a variety of types of homework were suggested, and the focus of homework assignment was toward meaningful, creative, and high-level thinking endeavors References Cauley, K. Good, T. Looking in classrooms, ninth ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Steven A. From the Inquiries Journal Blog. Related Reading Education » Education Technology. Education » Assessment. Education » Oppression. Education » Literacy. Monthly Newsletter Signup The newsletter highlights recent selections from the journal and useful tips from our blog. Follow us to get updates from Inquiries Journal in your daily feed. This study was designed to explore current issues of access, interests and attitudes towards technology use in STEM related courses for a population of middle school students enrolled at a Title I urban school in the South MORE ».

Throughout the American education system, the assessment of writing skill and general academic performance through timed essay examinations has become increasingly pervasive, contributing to the determination of grades and course placements and ultimately affecting college admissions through their use in standardized tests. In March Oppression tends to exist in compartmentalized, clearly labeled categories of race, social class, gender, or sexual preference. While these rigidly defined categories may have been applied to allow for rational discussion of problems and solutions, the truth is that they are inherently oppressive themselves. Hatt-Echeverria and While international literacy results show Canada maintaining a strong standing, there have been declines in the results for both traditional and digital literacy in several provinces, including New Brunswick.

A trial of authentic literacy activities across a range of subject areas in the high school curriculum has been implemented Follow IJ. Latest in Education Language Learning. English grammar learning is challenging but essential for English-as-a-second-language ESL learners. It is vital for ESL learners to develop effective learning strategies to facilitate grammar learning. The efficacy of the incorporation of a learners Read Article ». Restorative Justice. Higher Education. The promotion of general education is a matter of ongoing debate owing to the pressing question of how to improve higher education in China. However, the available analytical material still remains somewhat experiential and emotion-oriented.

In this While these rigidly defined categories may have been applied to allow for rational discussion of problems and solutions The process of selecting a dissertation adviser can be accomplished in a number of ways. The importance, however, of this process should not be understated. This relationship between adviser and advisee often can be the difference between completing Education Policy. Published by Clocks and Clouds. The division of society, however, continues in its Though it began in France, Symbolism was an international avant-garde movement that spread across Europe and North America during the last two decades of the nineteenth century.

The Norwegian Edvard Munch — was closely associated with Symbolist circles, spending time in Paris before settling in Germany in the early s. Virtually all of the canvases he produced between and belong to a series called the Frieze of Life. Ferdinand Hodler Swiss, — , Jan Toorop Dutch, — , and a number of Belgians, including Fernand Khnopff — , were among the international participants.

Also working in Belgium, though rarely exhibiting his work, was James Ensor — , who developed a unique Symbolist style based on grotesque and carnivalesque figures. Picasso, an avid admirer of Gauguin, whose works he first encountered while visiting Paris in , enthusiastically embraced Symbolism during his formative years in Barcelona. Myers, Nicole. Visiting The Met? Oedipus and the Sphinx Gustave Moreau. Vase with face Pierre-Adrien Dalpayrat. Pandora Odilon Redon. Citation Myers, Nicole. Symbolists and Decadents. Lucie-Smith, Edward.

Language as a constellation of skills, thought encoders and markers of identity cuts across school subjects and disciplines. Language has to be maintained as a marketable skill. National Curriculum Framework for school education— Backgrounder. Curriculum designing has a special place among the diverse responsibilities envisaged in the charter of NCERT. As an apex national agency of education reform, NCERT is expected to review the school curriculum as a routine activity, ensuring the highest standards of rigour and deliberative openness in the process.

The 21 National Focus Groups, also chaired by renowned scholars and practitioners, covered the following major areas:. Teaching of Sciences. Teaching Mathematics. Teaching of Indian Languages. Teaching of English. Teaching of Social Sciences. Learning and Habitat. Art, Dance, Theatre and Music. Aims of Education. Systemic Reform for Curricular Change. Curriculum, syllabus and Textbooks. Teacher education for Curriculum Renewal. Examination reforms. Early childhood education. Work and education. Educational technology. Heritage crafts. Health and physical education. Gender issues in the curriculum.

Education for groups with special needs. Each National Focus Group has had several consultations in which they have interacted with other scholars and classroom practioners in different parts of the country. Advertisements were placed in 28 national and regional dailies to invite suggestions from parents and other concerned members of the public. More than responses were received. The salient features of the revised NCF are as follows:. Chapter 1: Perspective. It provides the historical backdrop and the rationale for undertaking the revision of the National Curriculum Framework.

It refers to the recommendations of the National Commission on Secondary Education, Mudaliar Commission and the Education commission, Kothari Commission and traces and development of Curriculum Framework, as also the formulation of the National Curriculum Framework, , following the adoption of the National Policy on Education in It refers to the report entitled Learning without Burden , which highlighted the problems of curriculum overload which made learning a source of stress for children during their formative years. Chapter 1 reaffirms faith in the Constitutional vision of India as a secular egalitarian and pluralistic society founded on values of social justice and equality. It proposes four guiding principles for curriculum development, namely a connecting knowledge to life outside the school, b ensuring that learning shifts away from rote methods, 9c enriching th curriculum so that it goes beyond textbooks, d making examinations more flexible.

It addresses the challenge of quality in a system that seeks to reach every child the exclusive triangle of equality, quality and quantity. This chapter looks at the social context of education and the hierarchies of caste, economic status and gender relations, cultural diversity as well as uneven development that characterize Indian Society, and deeply influence access to education and participation of children in schools. It cautions against the pressures to commodify schools and the application of market related concepts to schools and schools quality. Finally, it discusses educational aims as deriving from the Guiding Principles.

Chapter 2: Learning and Knowledge. The Chapter focuses on the primacy of the learner. It discusses the nature of knowledge and the need for adults to change their perceptions of the child as a passive receiver of knowledge; rather the child can be an active participant in the construction of knowledge by encouraging children to ask questions, relate what they are learning in school to things happening outside, encouraging them to answer form their own experiences and in their own words rather than by memorizing. It recognizes the need for developing an enabling and non-threatening environment, since an environment of fear, discipline and stress is detrimental to learning.

Healthy physical growth is the pre-condition for development and this requires that they benefit from nutrition, physical exercise and freedom from physical discomfort. Development of self identity through the adolescent years, particularly in the case of girls who are constrained by social conventions, is an important component. This chapter emphasizes that gender, caste, class, religion and minority status or disability should not constrain participation in the experiences provided in school.

It is, therefore, entirely possible that learning disabilities may arise from inadequate and insufficient instruction. This chapter also highlights the value of interaction—with the environment, nature, things, people—to enhance learning. Learning in school regretfully continues to be teacher-dominated and the teacher is seen as transmitting knowledge-knowledge of ten being confused with information. It points out that interaction with peers, teachers and older and younger people can open up many rich learning possibilities. Learning tasks and experiences, therefore, need to be designed to ensure that children seek out knowledge from sites other than the textbooks—from their own experiences, from experiences at home, community, from the library.

Heritage sites, therefore, assume great significance as sites of learning. It recommends significant changes in Language, Maths, Natural Science and Social Sciences with a view to reducing stress and making education more relevant to the present day and future needs of children. In Language, it makes a renewed attempt to implement the three-language formula with emphasis on mother tongue as the medium of instruction. India is a multi-lingual country and curriculum should promote multilingual proficiency in every child, including proficiency in English, which will become possible only if learning builds on a sound language pedagogy of the mother tongue.

It recommends that the teaching of Science should be recast to enable children to examine and analyze everybody experiences. Environment Education should become part of every subject. In Social Sciences it recognizes disciplinary markers with emphasis on integration of significant themes, such as water. It also recommends a paradigm shift to study social sciences from the perspective of marginalized groups. It recommends that gender justice and sensitivity to tribal and dalit issues and minority sensibilities should inform all sectors of social science.

Work should be recognized as a creator of new forms of knowledge and promote the values necessary for democratic order. Work education must link up with heritage crafts, especially in craft zones which need to be mapped, so that this important source of cultural and economic wealth can be properly harnessed through linkage with education. Chapter 4 : School and Classroom Environment. The Chapter talks about the need for nurturing an enabling environment by bringing about suitable changes in the school and classroom environment. It revisits traditional notions of discipline and discusses the need for providing space for parents and community. It also discusses curriculum sites and learning resources, including texts and books, libraries, education technology, tools and laboratories, etc.

This chapter addresses the need for plurality of material, as also the need for teacher autonomy and professional independence. Chapter 5: Systemic Reforms. It covers issues of quality and the need for academic planning for monitoring of quality. It reaffirms faith in Panchayati Raj and suggests the strengthening of Panchayati Raj Institutions through systematic activity mapping of functions appropriate at relevant levels of panchayats, while simultaneously ensuring appropriate financial autonomy on the basis of the funds-must-follow-functions principle.

This chapter also looks at issues of academic planning and leadership at school level to improve quality. Teacher education for curriculum renewal focuses on developing the professional identity of the teacher as also in-service education and training of teachers. Examination Reforms is an important component of this chapter to reduce psychological pressure, particularly on children in class X and XII. The NCF, therefore, recommends changing the typology of questions so that reasoning and creative abilities replace rote learning as the basis of evaluation.

Finally, it encourages innovation in ideas and practice through plurality of textbooks and use of technology and recommends partnerships between the school system and other civil society groups. Suggestions derived from deliberations will be presented to the National Steering Committee for incorporation. Release ID This document and the principles of education that it expounds embody the most progressive, child-centered educational ideas and strategies practiced today in many schools of the world, and illustrate the pervasive nature of the insights expressed by Sri Aurobindo in the early decades, and by the Mother in the 40s and 50s, of the 20th Century. Their seminal ideas have become the norms of progressive education reform. The purpose of this brief essay is to demonstrate the concreteness of this remarkable achievement, and thereby to draw a direct connection between NCF and Auroville Education.

In the introduction to NCF, Prof. Yash Pal writes on the first page; The document frequently revolves around the question of curriculum load on children. In this regard we seem to have fallen into a pit. We have bartered away understanding for memory-based, short-term information accumulation. This must be reversed, particularly now that the mass of what could be memorized has begun to explode. We need to give our children some taste of understanding, following which they would be able to learn and create their own versions of knowledge as they go out to meet the world of bits, images and transactions of life.

Here Yash Pal has indicated the problem formulated long ago by Sri Aurobindo in these words: The argument against national education proceeds in the first place upon the lifeless academic notion that the subject, the acquiring of this or that kind of information is the whole or the central matter. It is especially important to note here one of the most meaningful concepts in education reform, which is indicated by the phrases create their own versions of knowledge and the building of the powers of the human mind for this is the notion of constructivism. When the Mother expressed these ideas, she used the notion in a very explicit way: The growth of the understanding much more than that of memory should be insisted upon.

One knows only what one understands. The underlying insight in all of these expressions is now commonly known as constructivist, activity based education, and it has become the formal methodology of NCF as well as of the Harvard Graduate School of Educations teacher training program. It is also the basic methodology that has been practiced consciously in most Auroville schools for at least the past ten years. In the body of NCF, after an elaborate description of the problems of a memory and examination based system of education, the constructivist approach is stated explicitly: Child-centered pedagogy means giving primacy to childrens experiences, their voices, and their active participation p.

Active engagement involves enquiry, exploration, questioning, debates, application and reflection, leading to theory building and the creation of ideas p. In Sri Aurobindos writings, the first principles of a child-centered pedagogy were stated succinctly, very early in the process of educational development which, we may perhaps say, is now in its completion phase, and these are the most oft-quoted of his statements on the subject: The first principle of true teaching is that nothing can be taught. The teacher is not an instructor or task-master, he is a helper and a guide. The second principle is that the mind has to be consulted in its own growth.

The idea of hammering the child into the shape desired by the parent or teacher is a barbarous and ignorant superstition. It is he himself who must be induced to expand in accordance with his own nature. The third principle of education is to work from the near to the far, from that which is to that which shall be. The basis of a mans nature is almost always in addition to his souls past , his heredity, his surroundings, his nationality, his country, the soil from which he draws sustenance, the air which he breathes, the sights, sounds, habits to which he is accustomed and from that then we must begin. The what and the how are generally known, respectively, as the content and the method.

The NCF document, however, like the writings of Sri Aurobindo and the Mother on education, focuses almost exclusively on the how, the methodology. And that is the aspect of what is generally known as child-centered education reform suggested above by Sri Aurobindos three principles. But how does NCF deal with these principles, either in theory or practice? The document says, for example, The childs community and local environment form the primary context in which learning takes place, and in which knowledge acquires its significance. In this document we emphasize the significance of contextualizing education: of situating learning in the context of the childs world, and of making the boundary between the school and its natural and social environment porous.

If we want to examine how learning relates to future visions of community life, it is crucial to encourage reflection on what it means to know something, and how to use what we have learnt NCF p. The way that Sri Aurobindo put this idea was this: there are three things that have to be taken into account in a true and living education: the individual in his commonness and in his uniqueness, the nation or people, and universal humanity. This is the shift from teacher centered education to learner centered education, for the development of both individual and society. In our school NESS students have conducted detailed surveys in the community to learn about water distribution and sanitation in our local villages, and to analyze local food production and consumption patterns.

Living in a rural area is an ideal situation for studying todays radically changing socio-economic patterns, in order to put a relevant what to the how of the three first principles. We can compare these activities with some that are documented annually in the SAIIER reports on Auroville education, which I happen to have edited for three years , where we find elaborate descriptions of similar activities undertaken by students in their schools, from explorations in the bioregion, to dramas, research projects on the environment, art projects, visits to Auroville farms, etc.

And we find frequent reference to the fact that the students choose an activity, explore their interests, make oral presentations, debate their positions on topics, etc. In all of these activities, the teacher is a support and guide to the students learning process, students are being consulted with respect to their interests and skills level, and the subject matter is generally relevant to todays reality in relation to the past and the future. But the point of this essay is to illustrate the former closeness, in principle and practice, between NCF and Auroville education. That closeness is what makes NCF relevant for us. In her short but very influential essay on education, around , the Mother wrote: Education, to be complete, must have five principal aspects relating to the five principal activities of the human being: the physical, the vital, the mental, the psychic, and the spiritual.

Usually, these phases of education succeed each other in a chronological order following the growth of the individual; this, however, does not mean that the one should replace the other but that all must continue, completing each other, till the end of life. This is undoubtedly the basis of the ideal that she assigned to us in the Charter of Auroville: to be the place of an unending education. And in this essay she especially emphasized the importance of the education of the vital. Of all education, the education of the vital is perhaps the most important and the most indispensable. This is what we normally refer to as character development, or as she put it to become conscious and gradually master of ones character.

In this context, one of the most remarkable aspects of the NCF education reforms is the introduction of what is called Continuous Comprehensive Evaluation CCE which is a system for observing, annotating, and supporting the development of the whole child: mental, emotional, social, physical in addition to the normal exclusive preoccupation of schools with academic development. And again, NCF has added a very substantial how to the what by creating a system that sensitizes teachers to the aspects of child-development which should now be emphasized in place of the old, one dimensional system of ranking students according to examination results. And why is on-going evaluation important? The answer is simple: If we dont state our desired goals clearly and measure our progress toward achieving them, no one will know where we are headed or how far we have to go.

The School Based Continuous and Comprehensive. Evaluation system should be established to:. Reduce stress on children. Make evaluation comprehensive and regular. Provide space for the teacher for creative teaching. Provide a tool of diagnosis and remedial action. Produce learners with greater skills. The objectives are:. To help develop cognitive, psychomotor and affective skills. To lay emphasis on thought process and de- emphasise. To make evaluation an integral part of teaching- learning process. To use evaluation for improvement of students achievement and. To use evaluation as a quality control device to maintain desired. To determine social utility, desirability or effectiveness of a. To make the process of teaching and learning a learner-centered.

Life skills to be evaluated:. For teachers to be required to observe students and themselves with respect to these qualitative aspects of learning is just a step away from the recognition of those ideal psychological qualities that the Mother pointed to in her guidelines for vital education, which she said should be inculcated in both teachers and students: sincerity, honesty, straightforwardness, courage, disinterestedness, unselfishness, patience, endurance, perseverance, peace, calm, self-control. There are many other examples of the NCF reforms, from the original page document, as well as from numerous other publications of NCERT and CBSE during the past five years, which indicate the quite remarkable results of an intensive and thorough process that is underway in India to revolutionize public education, and which can be linked directly to the early teachings of Sri Aurobindo and the Mother on education.

It is also well-known that many students of their teachings, and followers of their example, have been involved in this process at the national level for several decades. It will be instructive to examine more closely some of the specific guidelines published by the CBSE to help teachers implement the principles of continuous assessment. Education aims at making children capable of becoming responsible, productive and useful members of a society. Knowledge, skills and attitudes are built through learning experiences and opportunities created for learners in school.

It is in the classroom that learners can analyse and evaluate their experiences, learn to doubt, to question, to investigate and to think independently. The aim of education simultaneously reflects the current needs and aspirations of a society as well as its lasting values and human ideals. At any given time and place it can be called the contemporary and contextual articulations of broad and lasting human aspirations and values.

Conceptual development is thus a continuous process of deepening and enriching connections and acquiring new layers of meaning. Simultaneously theories that children have about the natural and social world develop, including about themselves in relation to others, which provide them with explanations for why things are the way they are and the relationship between cause and effect. CCE Teacher Manual, p. This definition of the aims of constructivist education, sometimes known also as discovery or enquiry based learning, assumes that students are in the end responsible for their own learning. This was the idea behind that early first principle formulated by Sri Aurobindo, that nothing can be taught. The constructivist assumption is that learning is a process that takes place in the individual consciousness; it is not something that is imposed from outside by a teacher.

But for Sri Aurobindo, writing his philosophy of social development in the early 20th Century, there was more to this psychological discovery than educational theory: it was the basis of a new and radical conception of the right of all individuals as members of the society to the full life and the full development of which they are individually capable. It was the dawning of the democratic ideal in Indian political theory, and of the values of individualism. Sri Aurobindo was in the vanguard of that movement and was acutely aware that it was only the full development of each individual that could result eventually in a successful renewal of the collective life.

For, this new spirit of individualism contained in it a deeper insight Education, conceived as a tool of the society and culture, must therefore offer students opportunities to experience connections, - between language and meaning, symbols and reality, ideas and values, - in order to truly understand themselves and their relationships with the natural and social world around them, of which they are an integral part. The early trend toward such a progressive and integral educational development of the inner and outer being, of self and society, and of a balanced development of mind, life, body, and soul was noted by Sri Aurobindo as early as there was a glimmering of the realization that each human being is a self-developing soul and that the business of both parent and teacher is to enable and to help the child to educate himself, to develop his own intellectual, moral, aesthetic and practical capacities and to grow freely as an organic being, not to be kneaded and pressured into form like an inert plastic material.

Assessment for learning. Teacher-guided, activity-based learning experiences and exposures, intended to enhance the development of academic skills and knowledge, are generally what we mean today, in a progressive educational context, by schooling. In this context there is a variety of formative and summative assessments whereby such skills and knowledge acquisition are assessed, and we can measure students progress. But how do we determine whether the students are also acquiring self-knowledge, a sense of who they are in relation to the world around them, and a value system that will enable them to live healthy, productive, creative and responsible lives beyond school?

It is this more profound psychological aspect of schooling that the CCE system is attempting to bring into focus, for both teachers and students. And the pedagogical approach that it has adopted is sometimes known as assessment for learning and assessment as learning. It is an approach that has been extensively researched by the Harvard Graduate School of Education in America and it is being applied in many progressive educational systems around the globe.

And, like all good, enquiry based methodology, it asks the question! It is when we ask the question, when we enquire, that we inform ourselves and others about the things we want to know. And this enquiry, in turn, also conveys our values: What we want to know, is what we believe is most important. The CCE system, therefore, creates checklists made up of the kinds of information-questions that we want to assess.

These checklists may be considered rubrics or codes, which set forth the value-criteria by which we expect students to achieve and demonstrate individual self-development. Below, we find three sets of value rubrics for thinking, social and emotional skills, derived from a longer CCE list, which indicate the skills that we want students to develop. This shortened list will provide ample material to illustrate the principles.

Recognizes and analyzes a problem. Collects relevant information from. Evaluates alternative decisions for. Demonstrates divergent out-of-the-box thinking. Demonstrates flexibility and openness to modification. Helps classmates in case of difficulties in. Actively listens and pays attention to others. Explains and articulates a concept differently. Demonstrates leadership skills, like responsibility,. Helps others develop independence and avoid dependency. Is optimistic. Believes in self and shows self confidence. If unsuccessful, gracefully tries the. Maintains decency under stressful. Does the student recognize her strengths and weaknesses? This list of fifteen character traits might easily be considered a good beginning of a profile for the ideal student, although there are certainly many more traits that we could add.

The CCE manual also includes descriptors for physical health, artistic expression, creativity, moral values, and so on. But let us consider some of these fifteen descriptors briefly. How shall we assess them? First we must ask corresponding questions: Does the student recognize and analyze problems? Does the student demonstrate divergent thinking? Does the student actively listen and pay attention to others?

Does the student demonstrate leadership skills? Does the student show self-confidence? If she is unsuccessful, does she gracefully try the task again? Does she recognize her strengths and weaknesses? In order to answer these questions, the teacher must develop a much greater degree of sensitivity to the student than is normally required for teaching a unit or grading a quiz. In fact, the teacher must set aside the academic subject altogether, and tune in to the psychology of the student. It is an aspect of personality that is normally hidden to all but the student herself, and perhaps it is also hidden even to herself.

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