① Quebec Sovereignty Summary

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Quebec Sovereignty Summary



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A look back at the 1995 Quebec Referendum in 60 seconds

Meanwhile, although the United States made no formal claims, they were particularly active around Ellesmere Island. Lieutenant A. Greely led a scientific expedition there from to Sverdrup is believed to be the first European to set foot on them. He claimed all his discoveries — about , km 2 — for Norway. Other large Arctic islands were also reached by non-British explorers. In the s, the Canadian government sponsored periodic voyages to the Eastern Arctic. The goal was to establish a presence there in support of its territorial claims.

In , a series of Arctic patrols began. See Baffin Island. In , A. Captain J. Bernier carried out numerous voyages between and Perhaps the most important was that of ; he set up a plaque on Melville Island , claiming the Arctic archipelago for Canada, from the mainland to the North Pole. It was the first expedition financed and supported by the Canadian government to explore the Western Arctic.

The CAE was commanded by the controversial explorer Vilhjalmur Stefansson ; he charted the last of the Arctic islands and claimed them for Canada. However, these and similarly symbolic acts of raising flags and erecting plaques carried little weight in international law since they were not accompanied by effective occupation or administration. It was set up to control the activities of American whalers in the Western Arctic. It was met by a plan for effective occupation of Ellesmere and other islands. In , another detachment was placed at Pangnirtung , and in at Dundas Harbour, on Devon Island.

See also Bache Peninsula Archaeological Sites. There were no Canadians living within hundreds of kilometres of Bache Peninsula. But the RCMP operated a post office there with mail delivery once a year because operation of a post office was an internationally recognized proof of sovereignty. The RCMP also continued its extensive patrols. On Ellesmere Island, where there was no population, these were exploratory.

In , a patrol commanded by Inspector A. Joy covered 3, km by dog team. Some new land was reached. In , Constable T. Makinson reached the large inlet off Smith Sound that now bears his name. On Baffin Island, the police visited each Inuit camp annually, took the census , explained the law and reported to Ottawa on local conditions. These were all demonstrations of sovereignty. Where necessary, they enforced the criminal law , as in the murder of the Newfoundland trader Robert Janes near Pond Inlet in See also Alikomiak and Tatimagana.

In , Norway formally abandoned its claim to the Sverdrup Islands. Approximately 5, Rangers, from communities, help promote Canadian sovereignty in isolated regions today. Their duties include reporting unusual activities; surveillance and sovereignty patrols; search and rescue; disaster relief; and support of Armed Forces operations and survival training. Also amid Cold War tensions in the postwar era, the Canadian government decided to populate Ellesmere and Cornwallis islands with Inuit , even though both areas were uninhabited. The government ordered the relocations to establish sovereignty in the Arctic. It promised improved housing , education and living conditions.

The Inuit were assured plentiful wildlife, but soon found that they had been misled, and endured hardships. Though Inuit were promised an option to return home after two years, they were not permitted to do so. But the fact that large sections are uninhabited and virtually undefended raises the possibility that it may not be secure forever. More important is the fact that there is international consensus only about the land area; the channels and straits — particularly the Northwest Passage — are not universally recognized as Canadian. Canada regards the channels and straits as internal waters through which foreign vessels must request permission to pass. With the prospect of bringing home oil from Arctic discoveries off Alaska, the United States has increasingly seen the Northwest Passage as international waters, open to all.

The Manhattan was escorted through the Northwest Passage with the help of Canadian and American icebreakers. The US did not officially seek permission for the Polar Sea voyage from the Canadian government; but Canada was notified about the event. Both countries co-operated on the matter, and Canada stationed official observers onboard during the voyage. It fell victim to cost-cutting and was never built. After much fanfare and political wrangling, the plan to build or buy submarines was quietly abandoned. In early , another plan to patrol the Arctic waters by submarine was abandoned as too expensive. Canada and Denmark have long argued over a tiny, uninhabited island; a 1.

Look at the camera, not at the screen. Conduct a dress rehearsal. Good communicators enhance client satisfaction. Good communicators build public awareness. Good communicators make good leaders. Good communicators inspire others. Make up the difference. Seek advice from others. Try to clarify and improve the situation. Manage your expectations. Keep a professional demeanor. Consider moving on. Group members can catch errors. Group work enhances buy-in. Groups are best at solving some problems. Making the Most of Group Meetings Encourage equal participation. Avoid information underload and overload.

Avoid pressure to conform. Make the most of diversity. Analyze the problem. Identify criteria for success. Gather relevant information. Identify supporting and restraining forces. Develop creative solutions. Evaluate possible solutions. Implement the plan. Planning Your Speech Step 1: Choose a topic. Step 3: Write a purpose statement. Step 4: State your thesis. Step 5: Gather information. Step 6: Double-check your sources. Preview the main points. Set the tone of your speech. Demonstrate the importance of your topic to your audience. Establish credibility. Use clear, simple language. Emphasize important points. Generate audience involvement. Establish common ground and credibility. Step 2: Describe the problem. Step 3: Describe the solution.

Step 4: Describe the desired audience response. More than ever, Essential Communication is a practical guide to improving communication skills in a variety of settings. This edition also provides tips for talking about politics in a respectful way, being a better listener, communicating with people from different cultures, addressing audiences, and more. The Guide will also provide teaching veterans with a library of new ideas to try out. It includes a full syllabus with a reading schedule, assignments, grading rubrics, and more as well as chapter lesson plans suitable for hybrid, online, and face-to-face courses. Instructor resources for each chapter include experiential learning activities, lecture notes, videos, discussions guides, journal topics, and public speaking prompts—all organized by learning objective and accompanied by ready-to-use handouts and corresponding PowerPoint slides.

Lesson plans include integrated teaching tips and screen shots of the lecture slides so instructors can choose the elements they like. The Essential Lecture Slide Deck The Essential Lecture Slide Deck includes a toolkit of class activities for each chapter: video clips with discussion prompts and lead-in slides for group activities, speaking opportunities, and writing prompts. The Essential Lecture Slide Deck sets instructors up for great classes all on its own. Test Bank The comprehensive Test Bank offers approximately 65 class-tested exam questions per chapter in multiplechoice and short-answer formats.

It is available in several formats: as a Word document, as a computerized version for easy customization using a copy of the Diploma test bank software, and in importable packages for major learning management systems including BlackBoard, Canvas, D2L, and Moodle. Contact your Oxford University Press representative or call for more information on accessing these resources. Digital Learning Dashboard delivers an enhanced ebook and interactive activities and assessments to track student progress in a simple and intuitive online environment.

All Dashboard content is engineered to work on mobile devices, including Android and iOS platforms. Contact your Oxford University Press representative or call to package Now Playing with your textbook. The companion website at oup. Their dedication and talents combine the best practices of traditional publishing with a 21st-century sensibility. We are deeply grateful to our editor, Toni Magyar, for providing support and expert guidance. She is the epitome of a great editor, sage, and friend. Her patience, creativity, and encouragement were validating and inspirational. Assistant editor Katlin Kocher was heroically helpful, organized, and quick to help at every step.

Thanks also to Sherri Adler for the cover design concept and to media editor Michael Quilligan for creating brilliant online ancillary materials. Our gratitude goes out as well to senior production editor Keith Faivre, whose careful eye and wisdom are invaluable, and to our talented designer Michele Laseau and incomparable marketing manager Braylee Kremer. Thanks as well to photographer Sarah Demuth for providing numerous custom-order images for the book.

On the home front, we thank our partners and families for giving us the time and support needed to create this book. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press, or as expressly permitted by law, by license, or under terms agreed with the appropriate reproduction rights organization.

Inquiries concerning reproduction outside the scope of the above should be sent to the Rights Department, Oxford University Press, at the address above. You must not circulate this work in any other form and you must impose this same condition on any acquirer. Ronald Brian , author. Rodman, George R. Description: Second edition. Interpersonal communication. A DDC What models best describe communication? Communication Contexts How does communication vary by context? Communication Competence What qualities make someone a competent communicator in person and online? Dispelling Myths What common beliefs about communication are untrue? It can refer to everything from the message on T-shirts to presidential speeches to chimpanzee behavior.

What does this mean? Communication is symbolic. Symbols are used to represent things, processes, ideas, or events in ways that make communication possible. Speakers of Spanish call it a libro, and Lithuanians call it a knyga. Even in English, another term would work just as well as long as everyone agreed to use it in the same way. Symbolic communication allows people to think or talk about the past, explain the present, and speculate about the future. We often think about communication as if it occurs in discrete, individual acts. But communication is a continuous, ongoing process.

Even what appears to be an isolated message is often part of a much larger process. How do you feel about the way you look? Is your friend prone to sarcasm? Instead of being like photos, they unfold like a movie in which the meaning comes from the interrelated series of images. This principle is especially true online, where a careless message can haunt you virtually forever. Rather, it is something we do with them.

Psychologist Kenneth Gergen captures the relational nature of communication well when he points out that our success depends on interaction with others. The idea is that people take turns being either a sender or a receiver. Nonetheless, it does offer some good insights. One important element of the linear model is the communication channel—the method by which a message is conveyed between people.

In addition to face-to-face contact, people may engage in mediated communication, meaning that they trade messages through a medium such as a phone, computer, or tablet. The linear model also introduces the concept of noise—a term that describes any force that interferes with effective communication. Three types of noise can disrupt communication: external, physiological, and psychological. For instance, an incoming text or a noisy lawnmower might divert your attention during a classroom lecture.

For instance, if you believe that someone dislikes you, you may perceive everything that person says in a negative way. A linear model Figure 1. Every communicator occupies a somewhat different environment. However, there is always some overlap in terms of goals and experiences we have in common. Communicating with people who are different than you can be rewarding. In Chapter 3, we discuss the advantages and skills involved in intercultural communication, and throughout this book we offer ways to bridge the gaps that separate each of us to varying degrees. Transactional Model The transactional communication model does a better job of capturing the fact that communication is a process by showing that people usually send and receive messages simultaneously.

Consider what happens when someone yawns as you complain about your family, or a new friend blushes at one of your jokes. But most personal communication involves simultaneous, two-way exchanges. Some feedback is nonverbal— smiles, frowns, eye rolling, and so on. Feedback may be oral or written, too. For example, the comments that followers add to your post or the lack thereof give you an idea how your message has been received. Your facial expressions, gestures, postures, and vocal tones may offer information to others even when you are unaware of them.

For this reason, the transactional model replaces the term encodes with the broader term responds to include both intentional and unintentional actions. Pause for a moment to consider your environment. Write down at least three examples of external noise that are present. Remember that noise includes more than sounds. What types of physiological noise are you experiencing right now? Think of a recent conversation. Write down, not what you said, but what you were thinking. Did psychological noise interfere with your ability to listen well? Consider your communication in the last 24 hours. This will no doubt highlight the fact that you present yourself differently depending on circumstances. For example, you may not behave the same way with your boss as with your best friend, and you are likely to say different things in a work group than with your family.

In this section, we consider six communication contexts, each with its own characteristics, advantages, and challenges. Notice what your inner voice is saying now. Chapter 2 describes the perception process we use in everyday situations, and part of Chapter 13 focuses on intrapersonal communication that can minimize anxiety when you speak in public. Dyadic communication can occur in person or via mediated channels such as instant messaging and social networking sites.

Dyadic communication is sometimes considered identical to interpersonal communication, but, as Chapter 7 explains, not all two-person interaction is interpersonal. Small Group Communication In small group communication, every person can participate actively with other members. Your family is a group. So are an athletic team, several students working on a project, and coworkers in different countries who are connected online. Whether small groups meet in person or via mediated channels, they exhibit characteristics that are not present in a dyad. In a dyad, there is no such thing as a majority. In a group, however, the majority of members can exert pressure, either consciously or unconsciously, on those in the minority.

Majority pressures can lead members to take risks they would not take if they were alone or in a dyad. However, groups may also be more creative than dyads, if only because there are more people from whom to draw ideas. Groups are so important that Chapter 10 focuses extensively on them. Organizational Communication Larger, more permanent collections of people engage in organizational communication when they collectively work to achieve goals. Organizational communication differs from communication in other contexts. Culture also plays a role. Each organization develops its own culture, which can be useful to consider when you apply for jobs and communicate in the workplace, the focus of Chapters 10 and Public Communication Public communication occurs when a group becomes too large for all members to contribute.

It is generally characterized by an unequal amount of speaking. One or more people are likely to deliver their remarks to the remaining members, who act as an audience. Even when audience members have the chance to post questions and comments either in person or online , in public communication, the speakers are still mostly in control and do the majority of the talking. And public speakers usually have a greater chance to plan and structure their remarks than do communicators in smaller settings. For this reason, Chapters 12 through 14 describe the steps you can take to prepare and deliver effective speeches.

Mass Communication Mass communication consists of messages that are transmitted to large, widespread audiences via electronic and print media such as websites, magazines, television, radio, and blogs. Most mass messages are aimed at a large audience without personal contact between sender and receivers. However, social media have a way of blurring boundaries. Sometimes, what begins as mass communication e. Finally, traditional media outlets, such as newspapers and broadcast television, are controlled by gatekeepers e. In which of the contexts described here do you feel most comfortable as a communicator?

In which contexts would you most like to build your skills? Until recently, mass communication was primarily a corporate or government product created by professional gatekeepers. Social media revolutionized this practice by allowing ordinary individuals to use communication technology to communicate with networks of people via Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and similar platforms. Here are three qualities that make social media a communication context like no other. Audience size varies vastly.

Whereas mass media messages are aimed at large audiences, the intended audience in social media can vary from a few receivers via a group text to thousands or even millions with a video or tweet. Some homemade messages go viral with viewership that rivals commercial programs. For example, video of a prank in which brothers convinced their sister that zombies were taking over the city has drawn more than 23 million viewers on YouTube. Unlike traditional forms of mass communication, social media are also distinguished by user-generated content. The term Web 2. You decide what goes on your Facebook page and what topics are covered in your YouTube video.

No staff writers, editors, designers, or marketers craft your message. Social media challenge the conventional idea that we communicate differently with close friends than with strangers. We offer some tips on the next page for skillful use of social media. Choose the best medium. Sometimes the choice is a no-brainer. If your boss or professor only responds to emails, then it would be foolish to use any other approach. But in many situations, you have a wide array of options. Anyone who has been dumped via a text message knows that it only adds insult to injury. Ask yourself how the recipient of your message would prefer to receive it and act accordingly.

Think before you post. This means that potential employers and others are likely to see what you post about them. Consider the fate of a high school student who tweeted rude remarks about other students while visiting a college she hoped to attend. Adapt to the audience. Short, casual messages have become so common online that people sometimes forget to use different etiquette for professional communication. Consider who will or might read each of your messages. If you have been texting and emailing since you could walk, it might be hard to believe that some people are insulted when you divide your attention between them and your phone.

Keep your cool. Flames are problematic because of their emotional and irreversible nature. But what is it that makes someone an effective communicator? Answering this question has been one of the leading challenges for communication scholars. For one, using a variety of communication styles can be effective. Also, competent behavior varies by situation and from one relationship to another. With these principles in mind, here are nine implications that arise from research about competent communication in any setting. Some very successful people are serious, whereas others use humor. Some are loud, whereas others are quiet.

And some people are straightforward, whereas others prefer subtlety. Just as there are many kinds of beautiful music and art, there are many kinds of competent communication. Consider this real-life example: After two friends, Rafa and James, had a meal together, James thanked Rafa for paying the bill. Communication involves a set of skills that can be learned. Systematic education such as the class in which you are now enrolled and a little training can produce dramatic results. We learn from our own successes and failures and by seeing what works well, and not so well, for the people around us.

Many poor communicators are easy to spot by their limited range of responses. Some are chronic jokers. Others always seem to be argumentative. Still others are quiet in almost every situation. Like a piano player who knows only one tune or a chef who can prepare only a few dishes, these people rely on a small range of responses again and again, whether or not they are successful. By contrast, competent communicators have a wide repertoire from which to draw, and they have the ability to choose the most appropriate behavior for a given situation.

This is why listening is so important. Because listening is such an important element of communicative competence, Chapter 5 is devoted to the topic. Cognitive complexity is the ability to understand issues from a variety of perspectives. For instance, imagine that your longtime friend seems angry with you. Is your friend offended by something you have done? Or did something upsetting happen earlier in the day?

Researchers have found that analyzing the behavior of others can lead to greater conversational sensitivity. Psychologists use the term self-monitoring to describe the process of paying close attention to our own behavior and using these observations to shape the way we behave. Used wisely, this is a valuable skill. High self-monitors are more likely than low self-monitors to develop relationships with many types of people. One feature that distinguishes effective communication in almost any context is commitment. Describe the most skillful communicator you know. What makes this person so effective? How can you adapt that skill to your own repertoire? In what situations are you at your best as a communicator?

At your worst? Describe three communication goals you would like to achieve. Answer the questions below for insight about your approach as a communicator. Tune out and hope your friend changes topics soon. Ask questions to be sure you understand what your friend means. You are working franatically to meet a project deadline when your phone rings. What would you probably do? Pretend to listen while you continue to work on your project.

You are assigned to a task force to consider the parking problem on campus. Which of the following are you most likely to do during task force meetings? Talk in a quiet voice to the person next to you. Ask questions and take notes. Spend most of your time listening quietly. What are you most likely to do at the table? Ask for dessert in a takeout container so you can leave early. Give your undivided attention as your brother talks about his big day. Paste a smile on your face and make the best of the situation, even if you feel bored. More than one may apply.

Perhaps you are shy, introverted, or easily distracted. Active listening tips in Chapter 5 may be helpful. Honesty can be a virtue, but be careful not to overdo it. Your willingness to actively engage with people is an asset. Use tips throughout the book to enhance your already-strong communication skills. People probably appreciate your listening skills but wish you would speak up more. Saying what you feel and sharing your ideas can be an asset both personally and professionally.

Correcting misconceptions is important because following them can get you into trouble. Here we set the record straight on how communication actually functions. Myth 1: Communication requires complete understanding. In truth, communication is neither good nor bad in itself. Rather, its value comes from the way it is used. Communication can be a tool for expressing warm feelings and useful facts, but under different circumstances the same words and actions can cause pain.

Most people assume that communication is an aptitude that people develop without the need for training— rather like breathing. Communication skills are a lot like athletic ability: Even the most inept of us can learn to be more effective with training and practice, and those who are talented can always become better. Communication in itself is neither good nor bad.

What matters is how you use it. And there are times when communicating too much can actually aggravate a problem. One key to successful communication, then, is to share an adequate amount of information in a skillful manner. Exploring ways to do that is one of the major goals of this book. Dyadic communication involves two persons interacting, whether or not it is interpersonal. In small group communication, every person can participate actively with the other members. People engage in organizational communication when they collectively work to achieve goals.

Public communication occurs when a group is too large for all members to contribute, as when an audience listens to a lecture. Communication Competence We use communication to achieve goals in a manner that, ideally, maintains or enhances the relationship in which it occurs. Communication can solve all problems. Communication is good. Meanings are in words. Communication is simple.

More communication is always better. Imagine a conversation the people pictured above might be having. Explain how the conversation you imagine illustrates the four key elements of communication described on page 2. Based on the linear model, if one person in the picture above is talking, what role are the others playing? How does this differ from a description of their communication based on the transactional model? KEY TERMS: linear communication model, sender encodes, message, receiver, decodes, channel, mediated communication, noise, environments, transactional communication model, feedback 1. Describe the different ways you might share that news with a close friend, your boss, and your current work group.

In what ways would you adapt your message to suit each relationship? KEY TERMS: intrapersonal communication, dyadic communication, small group communication, organizational communication, public communication, mass communication 1. Would you announce that via social media? Why or why not? If so, how would you craft your social media message s to be appropriate for different audiences your friends, your boss, your family, and so on? Which of these are you good at? Which might you improve and how? Which misconceptions about communication page 12 have caused the greatest problems in your life?

How can you approach similar situations more constructively in the future? What are some misconceptions about gender? Empathy and Emotion What is the difference between empathy and sympathy? How can you enhance your emotional intelligence? Identity Management What communication strategies do people use to establish a favorable social identity? When do social media make people feel better or worse about themselves?

Individuals have a sense of what makes them different from other people and how they are alike. These perceptions are based largely on communication with others. Take a few minutes to list as many of your traits and characteristics as you can. Self-Concept The items on your list contribute to your self-concept, a set of relatively stable perceptions each individual holds about themself. It includes your conception of what is unique about you and what makes you different from others. The self-concept is complex. Even a list of 20 or 30 terms would be only a partial description of the factors that describe you.

To be more complete, your list would have to be hundreds—or even thousands—of words long. Of course, not all items would be equally important. Self-Esteem An important element of the self-concept is self-esteem, a personal evaluation of self-worth. People with high self-esteem are more likely than others to take a chance on starting new relationships3 and showing affection to others,4 which can enhance their feelings of self-esteem even more. One of the most obvious impacts of mass media is the way people evaluate their appearance.

In the United States, adolescent boys are likely to feel that they are not as slender or as muscular as society expects them to be,8 and young women frequently exposed to media images are more likely than others to feel that they are overweight and to have eating disorders. In collectivistic cultures, a person builds identity by belonging to a group. If you have ever worked on a group assignment and been graded on how well the team as a whole performed rather than on your individual contributions, you have experienced collectivism to some extent.

In collectivist cultures, feelings of pride and self-worth are likely to be shaped by the behavior of other members of the community. Figure 2. Finally, the responses of others are likely to affect the way you anticipate future events— other job interviews, meetings with professors, and so on. This cycle illustrates the chicken-and-egg nature of communication and the self-concept. If you had to predict how well you will do in the rest of your academic career, what would you say?

On the other hand, what behaviors might prevent your prediction from coming true? So far, this chapter has covered the way people perceive themselves and others. In fact, humans are prone to perceptual bias. Some of the biggest problems that interfere with understanding and agreement arise from errors in interpretation, or what psychologists call attribution—the process of attaching meaning to behavior. Someone else might assume that the same person is a jogger or a construction worker.

Individuals attribute meaning both to their own actions and to the actions of others, but they often use different yardsticks. Here we explore four perceptual errors that can lead to inaccurate attributions—and to troublesome communication. Individuals typically judge themselves more charitably than they judge others. In an attempt to convince themselves and others that the positive face they show the world is true, people tend to judge themselves in the most generous terms possible. Social scientists have labeled this tendency the selfserving bias. Uncharitable attitudes toward others can, of course, affect communication. Your harsh opinions of others can lead you to send judgmental messages. At the same time, you may feel defensive when others interpret your behavior less charitably than you do yourself.

Consider a time when you received feedback about your contributions to a team project. Even if 9 out of 10 comments were positive, the negative one probably hit you hardest and stayed with you longest. Spotting threatening elements in the environment is sometimes more important than focusing on safe ones. Focusing on one unappealing quality, especially in someone you barely know, can lead you to reject them for reasons that might not matter very much in the long run. When someone impresses you favorably in some way, you are likely to assume they have other positive qualities as well—an attribution error that scholars call a halo effect. And sometimes a halo effect emerges over time.

One aspect of the self-concept involves gender. Here are three common misconceptions about gender. Myth 1: Sex and gender are the same. In fact, sex is a biological category e. Indeed, there are obvious advantages to embodying a range of communication styles regardless of your biological sex. Physical attributes and hormone levels make biological sex a more complicated formula than you might think. Conceptualizations of gender have advanced through three main stages over time. That is, people were considered either male or female. The second phase, which gained acceptance near the end of the 20th century,22 acknowledged that people might also be androgynous combining masculine and feminine traits or undifferentiated neither masculine nor feminine.

The third phase, emerging now, has some theorists embracing the idea of a gender matrix that recognizes gender as a multidimensional collection of qualities. People are too complex for simplistic labels. Tiffany Tan has a good friend she describes as unique, creative, and talented. Her friend also has autism. Here are three tips for better understanding yourself and others. Display empathy. This involves three dimensions. This requires you to set aside your own opinions and suspend judgment of that person. You know their fear, joy, sadness, and so on. Many people equate empathy with sympathy, but the concepts differ in two important ways.

For example, when something great happens to your best friend, you might realize that you feel happy but also a little jealous. Conversely, good self-regulators use emotions in positive ways. For example, you might channel your nervousness about public speaking into being more dynamic before an audience. Consider success as a student. This is a crucial factor in developing strong and trusting relationships. For example, organizations led by people with high EI are usually more successful than others, partly because these leaders are self-aware, they exercise emotional control, and they are good at understanding how employees and customers feel.

It can help you understand others accurately instead of jumping to conclusions. Here are the three steps involved. Describe the behavior you noticed. Suggest at least two possible interpretations of the behavior. This step is simple but important. A friend says something that hurts your feelings. What are you most likely to say? Tell me why you feel that way. Say nothing. What are you most likely to do? Take the day off. This feeling is too good to waste at work. Channel your positive energy into being a great team member. Set your emotions aside and get to work. Ask if anything is bothering him and then listen attentively to what he says. Give him some space. The grade on your research paper is not as high as you had hoped.

How are you most likely to respond? Fume about what an idiot the professor is. Post on social media that you are sad and discouraged today. Go over the paper carefully to learn what you might do better next time. This can be an asset in terms of self-expression, but be careful not to let your emotions get the best of you. Suggestions for perception checking page 22 and self-monitoring page 25 may help you strengthen the empathy and self-regulation components of EI.

You score relatively high in terms of EI. Just be careful to pair your self-awareness with active interest in others. You may feel impatient with people who are not as emotionally aware as you are. Stay tuned for listening tips and strategies in Chapter 5. Communication strategies throughout the book provide opportunities to build on your already-strong EI. The tips for self-disclosure in Chapter 7 may be especially useful to you. All the same, many of the messages people send are meant to create desired impressions. Individuals have public and private selves. In truth, everyone has several selves, some private and others public. Often, these selves are quite different. Your perceived self is the person you believe yourself to be in moments of honest self-examination.

You can verify the private nature of the perceived self by reviewing the self-concept list you developed at the start of the chapter. In contrast to the perceived self, the presenting self is a public image—the way you want to appear to others. In most cases, the presenting self you seek to create is a socially approved image: diligent student, loving partner, conscientious worker, and so on. Social norms often create a gap between the perceived and presenting selves. Sociologist Erving Goffman used the word face to describe the presenting self and the term facework to describe the verbal and nonverbal ways people try to maintain a positive image.

Depending on the circumstances, you may behave in ways that suggest to others that you are nice, competent, or artistic, for example. The other is the way that your face goals make others feel. Identity management is not a solo enterprise. Attaining a particular identity relies on how willing other people are to accept it. For example, women have traditionally been hindered by colleagues who treat them like sex objects or subordinates rather than as dedicated professionals.

At other times, however, people are active agents in helping one another save face. If you know the person well, you might point it out so they can avoid further embarrassment. Either way, you are engaged in a cooperative effort to help that person save face, just as you hope others will help you. In the course of even a single day, you may play a variety of roles: respectful student, joking friend, friendly neighbor, and helpful employee, to suggest just a few.

You may even play a variety of roles with the same person. Sometimes—perhaps on birthdays or holidays—you were a dedicated family member, and at other times you may have been antisocial and locked yourself in your room. People exercise the same level of versatility in different situations. One scholar pointed out that bilingual Latinos in the United States often choose whether to use English or Spanish depending on who they are speaking to and the kind of identity they seek in a given conversation.

But in other cases, you may act largely out of habit or an unconscious sense of what is appropriate. Some people are more aware of their identity management behavior than others. By contrast, low self-monitors express what they are thinking and feeling without much attention to the impression their behavior creates. This allows them to handle social situations smoothly, often putting others at ease. This may be due to their highly analytical nature. This means that they are easy to read.

This can make them reliable and honest. By now it should be clear that neither extremely high nor low self-monitoring is ideal. There are some situations in which paying attention to yourself and adapting your behavior can be useful, but sometimes, reacting without considering the effect on others is a better approach. This demonstrates again the notion of communicative competence outlined in Chapter 1: Flexibility is the key to successful communication.

Social rules govern your behavior in a variety of settings. It would be impossible to keep a job, for example, without meeting certain expectations. Salespeople are obliged to treat customers with courtesy, employees must appear reasonably respectful when talking to the boss, and some forms of clothing would be considered outrageous at work. People often manage their identities strategically. Or you might be nice to your neighbors so they will agree to keep their dog off your lawn. After all, you have to send some sort of message. After reading this far, you might think that identity management sounds like an academic label for manipulation or phoniness. A manipulative date who pretends to be single, even though they are married, is clearly unethical and deceitful.

So are job applicants who lie about their academic records to get hired. In fact, it is almost impossible to imagine how you could communicate effectively without making decisions about which front to present in one situation or another. It would be ludicrous for you to act the same way with strangers as you do with close friends, and nobody would show the same face to a 2-year-old as to an adult. Each of us has a repertoire of faces—a cast of characters—and part of being a competent communicator is choosing the best role for the situation.

Compare the identity you construct when interacting with older family members e. How do they differ? What other identities do you construct for different relationships and roles you play? Rachel Leonard had it made. Well, to be more accurate, virtual Rachel had all of those things. And the beautiful scenery? At the same time, she craved the genuine approval of people who understood and accepted her as she was.

Concerns such as these are central to the communication choices people make. Here we consider the impact of social media in managing that delicate balance. Social media can boost self-esteem. Research with adults 35 and younger suggests that text-based interactions—such as through emails, texts, and tweets—often contribute to selfesteem more than do in-person and telephone conversations. The reasons are twofold. People tend to strategically post photos that make them appear attractive and socially engaged with others. College students who accept their own strengths and weaknesses are more likely to show their true selves on social media. Consequently, they enjoy the security of knowing that others like them for who they really are, imperfections and all.

People who feel good about themselves are more likely than others to believe and enjoy compliments. For example, individuals with healthy self-esteem who are the targets of cyberbullying are more likely than those with low self-esteem to tell others about the bullying and to see bullies as immature and eager to prove their own status. It does suggest, however, that being silent or self-critical can make unkind comments feel even worse. People pay more attention to negative impressions than to positive ones. When people do perceive positive qualities, they tend to overgeneralize. Consider people who know you best. How do they enhance your self-esteem? Do they ever challenge it? If so, how? How might your opinion differ if someone takes your parking space?

If you knew that the child pictured here is biologically more male or more female, would it affect your opinion or your behavior toward the child? Compare the notion of a gender continuum with a gender matrix. Which are you best at? Which worst? What aspect of your desired social identity was threatened by the episode? How did you respond to save face as much as possible? If you have a social media presence, does it mostly show you in a genuine way, imperfections and all, or in a way that makes you look as good as possible? What do you think would happen if your social media identity changed?

What communication factors shape our cultural identities? Age and Generation How do communication patterns differ between different age groups? Values and Norms How do cultures differ? What factors contribute to and help reduce prejudice? Culture Shock What can we expect while adapting to new cultures? Cultures may differ even within the same family, neighborhood, or organization. You embody different cultural assumptions throughout the day as you shift between the various roles you play. While growing up in India, Priya was taught not to smile or make eye contact with strangers, since those actions might be construed as a sexual invitation.

I gave an awkward smile and stayed silent. Priya realized that the man mistakenly thought she was Deaf. Looking back, although she never summoned the courage to speak to the man, Priya says that she appreciated his friendly manner. Social scientists use the term salience to describe how much weight we attach to cultural characteristics in a particular situation. In-Group and Out-Group Partly because of cultural membership, we identify more closely with some people than with others. At home, your family members may feel in-group to you, but at a rock concert, you may feel that your friends are more in-group than your family members are. Coculture There are sometimes greater differences within cultures than between them. You might discover more in common with a traveler raised on another continent whom you meet in a Kathmandu hostel than you would with someone from across town.

Nonetheless, cultural norms and values can play a powerful role in shaping how we communicate, both within our in-groups and with people from different backgrounds. Social scientists use the term coculture to describe the perception of membership in a group that is part of an encompassing culture. For example, you may feel like part of an overarching American culture but also feel membership in youth culture, a Hispanic community, a religious or political group, or many other cocultures.

On the following pages, we consider the implications of intercultural communication—interacting with people from a variety of cultures and cocultures. Because individuals are members of many cocultural groups simultaneously, their identity arises from a complex interplay of cultural expectations. Here we explore some of the factors at play. For one thing, your experience of navigating in a wheelchair is likely to be inherently different from that of someone with similar physiology who grew up in different cultural environments. For another, the complex factors that comprise your identity cannot be easily named or tallied.

It proposes that each person experiences life at the intersection of multiple factors, whose interplay gives rise to a unique perspective and collection of experiences all their own. Instead, identity is shaped by the interplay of many elements simultaneously. Race and Ethnicity Race is a social construct originally created to explain biological differences among people whose ancestors originated in different regions of the world—Africa, Asia, Europe, and so on.

Consequently, race is not a reliable indicator of individual differences. For example, people who identify as Hispanic may look very different from one another but experience a sense of shared identity. Regional Differences Researchers in one experiment asked human resource professionals to rate the intelligence, initiative, and personality of job applicants after listening to a brief recording of their voices. The speakers with recognizable regional accents—from the southern United States or New Jersey, for example—were tagged for lower level jobs, whereas those with less pronounced speech styles were recommended for higher level jobs that involved more public contact. Individual differences are far too great for that.

But seen overall, there are regional cultures. That is, they are more likely than residents of other regions to be extroverted, considerate, traditional, and dutiful. They are inclined to value new ideas, innovation, and individualism. Masculine and feminine are but two adjectives in a broad constellation of gender-related qualities. It is now commonly accepted that gender identity may change over time and is not strictly tied to physical features. On average, 1 in 5 hate crimes in the United States targets people on the basis of their sexual orientation or gender identity. Young children have been bullied at schools, others told to go back home and social media has become at times a lot of the time an ugly place to be on.

In less extreme but still profound ways, religion may shape how and with whom people communicate. Religious teens who respect the viewpoints of multiple religions typically date more frequently than their nonreligious peers. Studies show that, if they communicate openly and respectfully about matters of faith, they are just as likely as other couples to stay together.

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