➊ William Cronon Only Connect Analysis
New York: Hill and Wang; Political ecologists Andrew Vayda and Bradley William Cronon Only Connect Analysis have noted William Cronon Only Connect Analysis the field of political ecology seems to be increasingly political, overemphasizing how different groups What Does The Pigs Head Symbolize In Lord Of The Flies environmental issues to gain control over land and resources and ignoring important ecological considerations. To encourage this kind of William Cronon Only Connect Analysis to your courses, we The Importance Of Leadership Strategies: Improving Personal Growth you to imagine Wiesel and Wallace in Present Conflict In Romeo And Juliet conversation with one another, with William Cronon Only Connect Analysis Mission Statement serving as your perspective from which you observe this conversation. The name Squanto has entered William Cronon Only Connect Analysis history William Cronon Only Connect Analysis folklore as the one of the last of the Patuxets who assisted the Pilgrims in This work explains not only how and why people do what they do, but also the William Cronon Only Connect Analysis of their systems in the environments in which they live. William Cronon Only Connect Analysis was first done in William Cronon Only Connect Analysis and Canada in William Cronon Only Connect Analysis s William Cronon Only Connect Analysis s. Clin Microbiol Rev. Curr Infect Dis Rep.
Previous proposals do not adequately account for signature signs epistaxis, jaundice and do not consider customs that may have been instrumental to the near annihilation of Native Americans, which facilitated successful colonization of the Massachusetts Bay area. Retrospective studies have inherent, sometimes insurmountable, biases, but speculation on past events by historians and anthropologists is commonplace and offers grist for future studies. We offer an alternative hypothesis for the cause of an epidemic among Native Americans in the years immediately before the arrival of the Pilgrims in Massachusetts.
During —, many persons died of a disease that presumably spared nearby European fishermen and traders 1. The more severe manifestations were fever, headache, epistaxis, jaundice, and skin lesions. Speculations as to the cause have included plague, yellow fever, and smallpox 2 — 7 , as well as influenza, chickenpox, typhus, typhoid fever, trichinosis, cerebrospinal meningitis, and syndemic infection of hepatitis B virus HBV and hepatitis D virus HDV Table 1 6 — We propose another disease: leptospirosis, accompanied by Weil syndrome. With its more severe manifestations, this syndrome is consistent with available clinical information, the nidality of Leptospira organisms, the introduction of rodent reservoirs, and the presence of favorable ecologic niches.
Practices of the local population placed it repeatedly in high-risk exposures to epidemic and hyperendemic environments. The limited information available notes the following clinical manifestations of the illness: headache and fever with visible signs of epistaxis and jaundice. Mode of transmission was not known. Weather and seasonality are unknown, although tree ring data suggest greater than average rainfall in eastern Massachusetts during — The duration of the epidemic or epidemics reportedly ranged from 3 to 6 years. The Patuxet Plimouth Native American village was severely depopulated Bennett suggested a 50—mile interior extension, which corresponds to the area of native corn horticulture Figure 1.
Figure 2. Plymouth, Massachusetts, harbor showing extensive Native American settlement a sketch by Samuel de Champlain from his voyage of By , several subtribes of the Wampanoag Pokanoket Nation were living between the present-day borders of eastern Rhode Island and southeastern Maine Figure 1. The Patuxet village was localized to an area in and around Plymouth harbor Figure 2. Salisbury estimated that the size of the Patuxet tribe before the epidemic was 2, No estimates are available of the number of Portuguese, Breton, and Bristol fishermen; Basque whalers; French fur traders; or English codders who had established a presence on the North Atlantic coast since the early sixteenth century English traders and fishermen had daily contact with indigenous persons but lived on ships or in segregated enclaves on land where salt-dried codfish stations favored by the English were built along Massachusetts Bay.
Before , there were no peridomiciliary animals except for small dogs and mice 10 , although other rodents e. Precolonization and postcolonization English written accounts do not mention rats, the numbers of which may have been influenced by the presence of cats, but aboard ships rats must have been common. The black rat Rattus rattus was common in coastal England at the time yet to be displaced by the brown rat [ R. Once established, rats and mice would become chronic carriers of disease agents, contaminating water and soil and infecting other commensal rodents e. Fresh and stored food items such as maize, beans, squash, pumpkin, roots, nuts, berries, meat, fish, and shellfish, were also susceptible to leptospiral contamination.
One hundred years ago, Williams collected all known information about the epidemic in an article that included 23 primary references, 22 of which contained eyewitness accounts or reports 3. He concluded that the disease may have been bubonic plague and supported his proposal by noting that there were abundant fleas in Indian dwellings, survivors had sores suggestive of buboes, and plague was endemic in London during — Eleven of his 23 primary sources disagreed, as did Carter, who without further elaboration stated that he thought the epidemic was influenza 4.
A recent analysis interpreted it as caused by a confluent form of smallpox 6. Clinical and epidemiologic information about classical explanations and some of the more recent suggestions are summarized in Table 2. The causes of most historical epidemics may never be proven. The new science of paleomicrobiology may provide some answers, but the question will remain about whether a person died of a specific disease or with the disease. However, even when proper evidence is limited, this limitation should not dissuade speculation about the causes of ancient afflictions. Our hypothesis is not meant to be a definite answer but a heuristic for others to criticize and explore. He also proposed that environmental and behavioral factors were equally important Despite its manifestation and subsequent visitations along coastal America in later years, yellow fever is not a plausible explanation given the routes of the trans-Atlantic slave trade at the time.
Transportation of the disease, its vector, and human cargo from Africa to the New World was limited to the Caribbean and Central and South America; little evidence exists that any ships visited the New England coast after disembarking slaves Alternative arthropod-borne and other non-arthropod—borne viral hemorrhagic fevers are even less plausible candidates. Clinical descriptions of other proposed diseases plague, chickenpox, typhus, typhoid fever, and meningitis are largely inconsistent with the syndrome described and were dismissed by Bratton. Citing Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. Pigs were absent in the New World, and the finding of a single pig bone in an undated midden makes a most unlikely explanation for the epidemic.
In , Adolf Weil originally described a constellation of signs and symptoms that is now eponymic for Weil syndrome his first patient experienced nasenbluten [nosebleed] on the second day of illness Inada and Ido identified the causative organism 30 years later Subsequent studies have demonstrated that rodents have high rates of leptospiral carriage and shedding Severe icteric leptospirosis was also known as infectious jaundice, epidemic jaundice, and icto-hemorrhagic fever In , Heath et al. Twenty-five percent were caused by L. Today, L. Icteroheamorrhagiae and other serovars Canicola, Autumnalis, Hebdomidis, Australis, and Pomona are endemic in the United States, and isolated instances within the United States continue to be reported More recent reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 32 , 33 and ProMED mail 34 demonstrate that leptospirosis is a worldwide, reemerging infection with identifiable risk factors, including immersion in fresh water, exposure to contaminated soil, and antecedent heavy rains 35 , Unlike hookworm disease, another Old World soil-borne disease that established itself in the more hospitable American South, leptospirosis is a more cosmopolitan fellow traveler and is still recognized as a zoonosis in New England.
Contemporary medical texts conflate signs, symptoms, and death rates of mild leptospiral infection with Weil syndrome, relying on more recent citations in which the nature of exposure, duration, and responsible Leptospira spp. Interventional measures removal from known sources, prompt diagnosis and treatment, and early prevention and control measures may have decreased overall case-fatality rates and limited the extent of the outbreaks.
These surprisingly high death rates in early Japanese reports were attributed to repeated intimate exposure to contaminated water by barefooted mine workers and rice farmers. Unlike the European experience, epidemics in Japan were rare, and endemic exposures were more common Leptospira spp. Subsequent studies found that leptospiral seroposivity was as high as Endemicity and subsequent high case-fatality rates, similar to those reported from Japan, are consistent with a leptospiral etiology for the — epidemic. The Patuxets may not have associated sickness with their environment or traditional ways of living and may have attributed their affliction to many causes, but not to countless exposures and reexposures to the agent.
Except for more severe cases of liver failure, the most common cause of death for leptospirosis renal or respiratory insufficiency would have not been recognized. The Indian lifestyle, which included constant exposure to rodents and their excreta on land and in water, exposed them to the leptospiral life cycle Figure 3 39 , Bare feet were common in and around houses.
Although a rare portal of entry, mucosal exposure may have occurred from ingestion of corn buried in the ground in rodent-accessible baskets and from rodent-contaminated foods in wigwams weetas. Dermal abrasions offered cutaneous portals of entry. Attendance of the ill and burial of the dead including those who died from Weil syndrome would have attracted others who shared local food, water, and camp grounds. It was common practice for entire families to enter sweat lodges followed by immediate immersion in cooling streams and ponds; sweat lodges were considered vivifiers and cure-alls for illnesses, a practice that may have reexposed the already ill to contaminated water. Once the spirochete established its presence in numerous foci, it survived for months in water, mud, and moist soil and caused infection in additional mammalian reservoirs.
A reduction in the populace may have been incremental, episodic, and continuous; daily needs and customs may have exposed the Indians to leptospirosis over many months or years, with only a small fraction of the population eventually surviving. Suggestions that the disease persisted among the Indians after perhaps through support the premise of endemic nidality and selective Indian vulnerability. Boots would have limited transmission from fresh water exposures, bathing was not a common practice, and work in a saline environment may have curtailed transmission. An occasional case of febrile illness on board ship would have been attributed to many other causes.
Disease and death may have occurred among the fishermen but are not recorded. The exact duration and extent of the epidemic s will never be known, but our suggestion offers an alternative explanation. Persistent leptospiral exposures resulted in more severe cases of Weil syndrome and jaundice, a sign that would have been reported by observers; the cause of death from other anicteric leptospiral infection would not have been recognized. Our proposal is consistent with the historical clinical descriptions, estimated death rates, importation and distribution of its reservoir host, inoculation of the agent in multiple suitable nidalities, spread to other mammalian reservoirs, hyperendemicity, ecologic factors favoring repeated exposure and transmission, and known high-risk activities of the indigenous population.
The name Squanto has entered American history and folklore as the one of the last of the Patuxets who assisted the Pilgrims in He was one of the few survivors of an epidemic that was crucial to the success of the Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay colonies because remaining Indians had little capacity to resist the new settlers. His research interests include public health history and historical epidemics and diseases. His research interest is historical epidemics. We thank Alfred W. Crosby, Asim A. Jani, Grayson B. Miller, Myron G. Table of Contents — Volume 16, Number 2—February Please use the form below to submit correspondence to the authors or contact them at the following address:.
John S. Highlight and copy the desired format. Data is collected weekly and does not include downloads and attachments. View data is from. The Altmetric Attention Score for a research output provides an indicator of the amount of attention that it has received. The score is derived from an automated algorithm, and represents a weighted count of the amount of attention Altmetric picked up for a research output. Section Navigation. Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Syndicate. Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3.
Table 1 Table 2. Article Metrics. Marr and John T. Abstract In the years before English settlers established the Plymouth colony — , most Native Americans living on the southeastern coast of present-day Massachusetts died from a mysterious disease. Figure 1 Figure 1. Figure 2 Figure 2. Previous Explanations. Figure 3 Figure 3. Leptospiral life cycle. Cook SF. The significance of disease in the extinction of the New England Indians. Hum Biol. PubMed Google Scholar. Webster N. A brief history of epidemic and pestilential diseases.
Hartford CT : Hudson and Goodwin; Getting the Most Out of the Common Reading Experience Other than the links, you will need a few other items to prepare adequately for a discussion of these speeches and the Mission Statement: Physical paper copies of the speeches and Mission Statement. A pen or pencil to take notes on literally the readings. Some of you may have heard this described as text annotation. Close reading and careful annotation will help you read more intently and deeply, gaining a level of understanding of material you will need in a college setting to confidently engage in a conversation with peers and faculty about a text.
A separate piece of paper. Treat reading course materials as you would written correspondence, a written conversation. Approach this reading as letter, text message, or email to which you must respond. Write down questions you have for the author as if they would respond to them in a subsequent letter and write down your own extensions of their ideas as a way to invite them to explain themselves more fully or to incorporate your ideas into their own perspective. You will be engaged in correspondence with others over this material. Your FYS instructor expects you to be prepared to share your ideas on these speeches by the time you arrive on campus. To assist you in this effort, we include a series of questions to consider and respond to prior to reading, while you read, and after you read to focus attention, analysis, notes, and future conversation.
Before You Read Effectively reading or listening requires understanding the context in which a work was created. Consider and take some notes on the following: Why was this created and who created it? Who was Elie Wiesel? Why does Wiesel make this speech? What was the occasion? Who was David Foster Wallace? Why does Wallace make this speech? Who am I and why am I reading this? What do you have in common with the others asked to read these materials? Why do you think Catawba College asks you all to read this common set of readings over the summer?
Given your identity as common group of people, how is the Mission Statement relevant to you or applicable to you? How does Wiesel define indifference? How is indifference seductive? How is indifference both sin and punishment for sin? What examples of indifference personal or societal can you think of from the past year? What does Wallace say is the value of a liberal arts education at a place that promises this kind of education according to Wallace?
How does his story of the two guys in the Alaskan bar illustrate his position on how liberal arts education is valuable? How do we escape this kind of thinking? What is his example of something he was totally wrong about that actually introduces the centerpiece or the thesis of the speech? What does Wallace mean when he says we all worship something and liberal arts education gives us freedom of choice on what to worship? After You Read Over the Summer If you have followed the guidance above, you will still have a pen, the text now well-annotated , and considerable written notes on separate pieces of paper. Talk about it.
Consider the message of both speeches and the charge you and I are given in the Mission Statement. Change occurs through action informed by awareness and acknowledgement of others. What are you indifferent towards, and how can you move from indifference to understanding and from understanding to action to address injustices? At Catawba College Part I: Hosting and Joining the Conversation Imagine a meeting where you are hosting these two authors where your goal is to have them speak with one another and to the wider audience about their works while finding common ground linking their views as a starting point for friendly conversation. If this is how humans are defined as distinctly human, how does a liberal education, with the qualities and benefits describes by Wallace, help us become more human?
If so, how? Can we think of other times in our lives on a small scale where we create elaborate arguments to avoid acting on injustices or pain of others we witness? Does this suggest that education and development of intellectual ability gives us different tools to use, some we can use to be more human and others we can use to be less human? If liberal education offers us the freedom to think about the world according to Wallace, and our relationship to others differently, and Wiesel suggests we have an obligation as humans to avoid indifference to suffering, is there a necessary obligation to act when we see suffering? What injustices and suffering do you see, and do you feel obligated to act? If you feel obligated to act, how do you feel you should respond with action?
Why or why not? How has this reading helped to enhance your connection with other human beings and their struggles? In the social isolation of the past year, what have you lost? What were you looking forward to that you ended up missing?As cattle ranching William Cronon Only Connect Analysis in the Amazon, good macbeth quotes tappers were being evicted because they did not have formal title to the land William Cronon Only Connect Analysis which William Cronon Only Connect Analysis lived and worked. Usually, neither local communities nor environmentalists are completely happy with the models and their results William Cronon Only Connect Analysis also agree that compromise is better than the rampant William Cronon Only Connect Analysis averted William Cronon Only Connect Analysis a reserve. The significance William Cronon Only Connect Analysis disease William Cronon Only Connect Analysis the extinction of the New England Indians. What were you looking forward William Cronon Only Connect Analysis that you ended up missing? Mode of transmission was not known. Please use the form below to submit correspondence to the authors or contact them at the following address: John S.