❤❤❤ Coalmining Research Paper

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Coalmining Research Paper

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However, chlorine reacts with naturally occurring organic matter in water to form potentially toxic chemical compounds, known collectively as disinfection by-products International Agency for Research on Cancer Drinking contaminated water is the most direct route of exposure to pollutants in water. The actual exposure via drinking water depends on the amount of water consumed, usually 2 to 3 liters per day for an adult, with higher amounts for people living in hot areas or people engaged in heavy physical work.

Use of contaminated water in food preparation can result in contaminated food, because high cooking temperatures do not affect the toxicity of most chemical contaminants. Inhalation exposure to volatile compounds during hot showers and skin exposure while bathing or using water for recreation are also potential routes of exposure to water pollutants. Toxic chemicals in water can affect unborn or young children by crossing the placenta or being ingested through breast milk. Estimating actual exposure via water involves analyzing the level of the contaminant in the water consumed and assessing daily water intake WHO Biological monitoring using blood or urine samples can be a precise tool for measuring total exposure from water, food, and air Yassi and others No published estimates are available of the global burden of disease resulting from the overall effects of chemical pollutants in water.

The burden in specific local areas may be large, as in the example cited in box Other examples of a high local burden of disease are the nervous system diseases of methylmercury poisoning Minamata disease , the kidney and bone diseases of chronic cadmium poisoning Itai-Itai disease , and the circulatory system diseases of nitrate exposure methemoglobinemia and lead exposure anemia and hypertension. Acute exposure to contaminants in drinking water can cause irritation or inflammation of the eyes and nose, skin, and gastrointestinal system; however, the most important health effects are due to chronic exposure for example, liver toxicity to copper, arsenic, or chromium in drinking water.

Excretion of chemicals through the kidney targets the kidney for toxic effects, as seen with chemicals such as cadmium, copper, mercury, and chlorobenzene WHO Pesticides and other chemical contaminants that enter waterways through agricultural runoff, stormwater drains, and industrial discharges may persist in the environment for long periods and be transported by water or air over long distances. They may disrupt the function of the endocrine system, resulting in reproductive, developmental, and behavioral problems. The endocrine disruptors can reduce fertility and increase the occurrence of stillbirths, birth defects, and hormonally dependent cancers such as breast, testicular, and prostate cancers. The effects on the developing nervous system can include impaired mental and psychomotor development, as well as cognitive impairment and behavior abnormalities WHO and International Programme on Chemical Safety Examples of endocrine disruptors include organochlorines, PCBs, alkylphenols, phytoestrogens natural estrogens in plants , and pharmaceuticals such as antibiotics and synthetic sex hormones from contraceptives.

Chemicals in drinking water can also be carcinogenic. Disinfection by-products and arsenic have been a particular concern International Agency for Research on Cancer The variety of hazardous pollutants that can occur in air or water also leads to many different interventions. Interventions pertaining to environmental hazards are often more sustainable if they address the driving forces behind the pollution at the community level rather than attempt to deal with specific exposures at the individual level. In addition, effective methods to prevent exposure to chemical hazards in the air or water may not exist at the individual level, and the only feasible individual-level intervention may be treating cases of illness.

Figure Some would label interventions at the driving force level as policy instruments. These include legal restrictions on the use of a toxic substance, such as banning the use of lead in gasoline, or community-level policies, such as boosting public transportation and reducing individual use of motor vehicles. Interventions to reduce pressures on environmental quality include those that limit hazardous waste disposal by recycling hazardous substances at their site of use or replacing them with less hazardous materials.

Interventions at the level of the state of the environment would include air quality monitoring linked to local actions to reduce pollution during especially polluted periods for example, banning vehicle use when pollution levels reach predetermined thresholds. Interventions at the exposure level include using household water filters to reduce arsenic in drinking water as done in Bangladesh. Finally, interventions at the effect level would include actions by health services to protect or restore the health of people already showing signs of an adverse effect.

Reducing air pollution exposure is largely a technical issue. Technologies to reduce pollution at its source are plentiful, as are technologies that reduce pollution by filtering it away from the emission source end-of-pipe solutions; see, for example, Gwilliam, Kojima, and Johnson Getting these technologies applied in practice requires government or corporate policies that guide technical decision making in the right direction. Such policies could involve outright bans such as requiring lead-free gasoline or asbestos-free vehicle brake linings or building materials ; guidance on desirable technologies for example, providing best-practice manuals ; or economic instruments that make using more polluting technologies more expensive than using less polluting technologies an example of the polluter pays principle.

Examples of technologies to reduce air pollution include the use of lead-free gasoline, which allows the use of catalytic converters on vehicles' exhaust systems. Such technologies significantly reduce the emissions of several air pollutants from vehicles box For trucks, buses, and an increasing number of smaller vehicles that use diesel fuel, improving the quality of the diesel itself by lowering its sulfur content is another way to reduce air pollution at the source. More fuel-efficient vehicles, such as hybrid gas-electric vehicles, are another way forward.

These vehicles can reduce gasoline consumption by about 50 percent during city driving. Policies that reduce "unnecessary" driving, or traffic demand management, can also reduce air pollution in urban areas. A system of congestion fees, in which drivers have to pay before entering central urban areas, was introduced in Singapore, Oslo, and London and has been effective in this respect. Air Pollution Reduction in Mexico City. Mexico City is one of the world's largest megacities, with nearly 20 million inhabitants. Local authorities have acknowledged its air quality problems since the s.

The emissions from several million motor vehicles more Power plants and industrial plants that burn fossil fuels use a variety of filtering methods to reduce particles and scrubbing methods to reduce gases, although no effective method is currently available for the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. High chimneys dilute pollutants, but the combined input of pollutants from a number of smokestacks can still lead to an overload of pollutants. Large combined emissions from industry and power stations in the eastern United States drift north with the winds and cause damage to Canadian ecosystems. In Europe, emissions from the industrial belt across Belgium, Germany, and Poland drift north to Sweden and have damaged many lakes there.

The convergence of air pollutants from many sources and the associated health effects have also been documented in relation to the multiple fires in Indonesia's rain forest in Brauer and Hisham-Hashim ; the brown cloud over large areas of Asia, which is mainly related to coal burning; and a similar brown cloud over central Europe in the summer, which is caused primarily by vehicle emissions.

Managing air pollution interventions involves monitoring air quality, which may focus on exceedances of air quality guidelines in specific hotspots or on attempts to establish a specific population's average exposure to pollution. Sophisticated modeling in combination with monitoring has made it possible to start producing detailed estimates and maps of air pollution levels in key urban areas World Bank , thus providing a powerful tool for assessing current health impacts and estimated changes in the health impacts brought about by defined air pollution interventions.

Water pollution control requires action at all levels of the hierarchical framework shown in figure The ideal method to abate diffuse chemical pollution of waterways is to minimize or avoid the use of chemicals for industrial, agricultural, and domestic purposes. Adapting practices such as organic farming and integrated pest management could help protect waterways Scheierling Chemical contamination of waterways from industrial emissions could be reduced by cleaner production processes UNEP Box Water Pollution Control in India. International and local experts initiated waste more Other interventions include proper treatment of hazardous waste and recycling of chemical containers and discarded products containing chemicals to reduce solid waste buildup and leaching of toxic chemicals into waterways.

A variety of technical solutions are available to filter out chemical waste from industrial processes or otherwise render them harmless. Changing the pH of wastewater or adding chemicals that flocculate the toxic chemicals so that they settle in sedimentation ponds are common methods. The same principle can be used at the individual household level. One example is the use of iron chips to filter out arsenic from contaminated well water in Bangladeshi households Kinniburgh and Smedley This chapter cannot follow the detailed format for the economic analysis of different preventive interventions devised for the disease-specific chapters, because the exposures, health effects, and interventions are too varied and because of the lack of overarching examples of economic assessments.

Nevertheless, it does present a few examples of the types of analyses available. A review of more than 1, reports on cost per life year saved in the United States for interventions in the environment and other fields table The net costs included only direct costs and savings. Indirect costs, such as forgone earnings, were excluded. Future costs and life years saved were discounted at 5 percent per year. Interventions with a cost per life year saved of less than or equal to zero cost less to implement than the value of the lives saved.

Each of three categories of interventions toxin control, fatal injury reduction, and medicine presented in table The cost-effective interventions in the air pollution area could be of value in developing countries as their industrial and transportation pollution situations become similar to the United States in the s. The review by Tengs and others does not report the extent to which the various interventions were implemented in existing pollution control or public health programs, and many of the most cost-effective interventions are probably already in wide use. The review did create a good deal of controversy in the United States, because professionals and nongovernmental organizations active in the environmental field accused the authors of overestimating the costs and underestimating the benefits of controls over chemicals see, for example, U.

Congress A number of publications review and discuss the evidence on the costs and benefits of different pollution control interventions in industrial countries see, for example, U. For developing countries, specific data on this topic are found primarily in the so-called gray literature: government reports, consultant reports, or reports by the international banks. In each city, an emissions inventory was established, and rudimentary dispersion modeling was carried out.

Various mitigation measures for reducing PM 10 and health impacts were examined in terms of reductions in tons of PM 10 emitted, cost of implementation, time frame for implementation, and health benefits and their associated cost savings. Some of the abatement measures that have been implemented include introducing unleaded gasoline, tightening standards, introducing low-smoke lubricants for two-stroke engine vehicles, implementing inspections of vehicle exhaust emissions to address gross polluters, and reducing garbage burning. Transportation policies and industrial development do not usually have air quality considerations as their primary objective, but the World Bank has developed a method to take these considerations into account.

The costs of different air quality improvement policies are explored in relation to a baseline investment and the estimated health effects of air pollution. A comparison will indicate the cost-effectiveness of each policy. The World Bank has worked out this "overlay" approach in some detail for the energy and forestry sectors in the analogous case of greenhouse gas reduction strategies World Bank The costs and benefits associated with interventions to remove chemical contaminants from water need to be assessed on a local or national basis to determine specific needs, available resources, environmental conditions including climate , and sustainability. A developing country for which substantial economic analysis of interventions has been carried out is China Dasgupta, Wang, and Wheeler ; Zhang and others Another country with major concerns about chemicals arsenic in water is Bangladesh.

The arsenic mitigation programs have applied various arsenic removal technologies, but the costs and benefits are not well established. Alternative water supplies need to be considered when the costs of improving existing water sources outweigh the benefits. Harvesting rainwater may provide communities with safe drinking water, free of chemicals and micro-organisms, but contamination from roofs and storage tanks needs to be considered. Rainwater collection is relatively inexpensive. One of the early examples of cost-benefit analysis for chemical pollution control is the Japan Environment Agency's study of three Japanese classical pollution diseases: Yokkaichi asthma, Minamata disease, and Itai-Itai disease table This analysis was intended to highlight the economic aspects of pollution control and to encourage governments in developing countries to consider both the costs and the benefits of industrial development.

The calculations take into account the 20 or 30 years that have elapsed since the disease outbreaks occurred and annualize the costs and benefits over a year period. The pollution damage costs are the actual payments for victims' compensation and the cost of environmental remediation. The compensation costs are based on court cases or government decisions and can be seen as a valid representation of the economic value of the health damage in each case. As table A few studies have analyzed cost-benefit aspects of air pollution control in specific cities. Those analyses are based mainly on modeling health impacts from exposure and relationships between doses and responses. Voorhees and others find that most studies that analyzed the situation in specific urban areas used health impact assessment to estimate impacts avoided by interventions.

Investigators have used different methods for valuing the economic benefits of health improvements, including market valuation, stated preference methods, and revealed preference methods. The choice of assumptions and inputs substantially affected the resulting cost and benefit valuations. One of the few detailed studies of the costs and benefits of air pollution control in a specific urban area Voorhees and others used changing nitric oxide and NO 2 emissions in Tokyo during —94 as a basis for the calculations.

The study did not use actual health improvement data but calculated likely health improvements from estimated reductions in NO 2 levels and published dose-response curves. The health effects included respiratory morbidity as determined by hospital admissions and medical expenses , and working days lost for sick adults, and maternal working days lost in the case of a child's illness. The results indicated an average cost-benefit ratio of 1 to 6, with a large range from a lower limit of 3 to 1 to an upper limit of 1 to Reduced mortality was by far the largest component of benefits, accounting for more than 80 percent of the total. Pandey and Nathwani applied cost-benefit analysis to a pollution control program in Canada.

Their study proposed using the life quality index as a tool for quantifying the level of public expenditure beyond which the use of resources is not justified. The benefit estimated in terms of avoided mortality was about 1, deaths per year. In that study, the major monetized benefits resulted from reduced mortality costs. Aunan and others assessed the costs and benefits of implementing an energy saving and air pollution control program in Hungary. They based their monetary evaluation of benefits on local monitoring and population data and took exposure-response functions and valuation estimates from Canadian, U.

They estimated the cost-benefit ratio at 1 to 3. Many of the benefits resulted from reduced mortality in the elderly population and from reduced asthma morbidity costs. Misra examined the costs and benefits of water pollution abatement for a cluster of small-scale industries in Gujarat, India. Misra's assessment looked at command-and-control, market-based solutions and at effluent treatment as alternatives.

In a cost-benefit analysis, Misra estimated the net present social benefits from water pollution abatement at the Nandesari Industrial Estate at Rs 0. After making corrections for the prices of foreign exchange, unskilled labor, and investment, the figure rose to Rs 0. It rose still further to about Rs 3. The foregoing examples demonstrate that interventions to protect health that use chemical pollution control can have an attractive cost-benefit ratio. The Japan Environment Agency estimates the national economic impact of pollution control legislation and associated interventions.

During the s and early s, when the government made many of the major decisions about intensified pollution control interventions, Japan's gross domestic product GDP per capita was growing at an annual rate of about 10 percent, similar to that of the rapidly industrializing countries in the early 21st century. The Japan Environment Agency concluded that the stricter environmental protection legislation and associated major investment in pollution control had little effect on the overall economy, but that the resulting health benefits are likely cumulative.

The broadest analysis of the implementation of control strategies for air pollution was conducted by the U. Environmental Protection Agency in the late s Krupnick and Morgenstern The analysis developed a hypothetical scenario for to , assuming that the real costs for pollution control during this period could be compared with the benefits of reduced mortality and morbidity and avoided damage to agricultural crops brought about by the reduction of major air pollutant levels across the country during this period.

The study estimated reduced mortality from dose-response relationships for the major air pollutants, assigning the cost of each death at the value of statistical life and the cost of morbidity in relation to estimated health service utilization. The study used a variety of costing methods to reach the range of likely present values presented in table It assumed that the reduction of air pollution resulted from the implementation of the federal Clean Air Act of and associated state-level regulations and air pollution limits.

The analysis showed a dramatically high cost-benefit ratio and inspired debate about the methodologies used and the results. One major criticism was of the use of the value of statistical life for each death potentially avoided by the reduced air pollution. The recalculated figure is still well above the fifth percentile estimate of benefits and does not undermine the positive cost-benefit ratio reported. Thus, if a developing country were to implement an appropriate control strategy for urban air pollution, it might derive significant economic benefits over the subsequent decades. The country's level of economic development, local costs, and local benefit valuations will be important for any cost-benefit assessment.

WHO's air quality guidelines are among the documents that provide advice on analytical approaches. We were unable to find an analysis for water similar to the broad analysis presented for air, but the examples of water pollution with mercury, cadmium, and arsenic described earlier indicate the economic benefits that can be reaped from effective interventions against chemical water pollution. Since the pollution disease outbreaks of mercury and cadmium poisoning in Japan, serious mercury pollution situations have been identified in Brazil, China, and the Philippines, and serious cadmium pollution has occurred in Cambodia, China, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, and Thailand.

Arsenic in groundwater is an ongoing, serious problem in Bangladesh, India, and Nepal and a less serious problem in a number of other countries. WHO has analyzed control strategies for biological water pollution and water and sanitation improvements in relation to the Millennium Development Goals Hutton and Haller Careful analysis of the same type is required for populations particularly vulnerable to chemical water pollution to assess whether control of chemical pollution can also yield significant benefits.

Even though a good deal of information is available about the health risks of common air and water pollutants, further research is needed to guide regulations and interventions. The pollutants that were most common in developed countries in the past are still major problems in developing countries; however, direct application of the experiences of developed countries may not be appropriate, because exposed populations in developing countries may have a different burden of preexisting diseases, malnutrition, and other factors related to poverty. Research on specific vulnerabilities and on relevant dose-response relationships for different levels of economic development and for various geographic conditions would therefore be valuable for assessing risks and targeting interventions.

In addition, global chemical exposure concerns, such as endocrine disruptors in air, water, and food, require urgent research to establish the need for interventions in both industrial and developing countries. An important research topic is to clearly describe and quantify the long-term health effects of exposure to air pollution. The existing literature indicates that long-term exposure may have more adverse health effects than short-term exposure and, hence, have higher cost implications. Another topic is to assess the health issue pertaining to greenhouse gases and climate change, which are related to the same sources as urban air pollution Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Research and policy analysis on how best to develop interventions to reduce health risks related to climate change need to be considered together with the analysis of other air pollutants.

In addition, to improve analysis of the economic costs of health impacts, better estimates are needed of the burden of disease related to chemical air and water pollution at local, national, and global levels. Cost-effectiveness analysis of air and water pollution control measures in developing countries needs to be supported by further research, as cost levels and benefit valuations will vary from country to country, and solutions that are valid in industrial countries may not work as well in developing countries.

Strategies for effective air and water resource management should include research on the potential side effects of an intervention, such as in Bangladesh, where tube wells drilled to supply water turned out to be contaminated with arsenic see box Research is also needed that would link methodologies for assessing adverse health effects with exposure and epidemiological studies in different settings to permit the development of more precise forecasting of the health and economic benefits of interventions. The variety of health effects of urban air pollution and the variety of sources create opportunities for ancillary effects that need to be taken into account in economic cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis.

These are the beneficial effects of reducing air pollution on other health risks associated with the sources of air pollution. For example, if the air pollution from transportation emissions is reduced by actions that reduce the use of private motor vehicles by, say, providing public transportation, not only are carbon dioxide levels reduced; traffic crash injuries, noise, and physical inactivity related to the widespread use of motor vehicles also decline Kjellstrom and others One of the key challenges for policies and actions is to find ways to avoid a rapid buildup of urban air pollution in countries that do not yet have a major problem.

The health sector needs to be involved in assessing urban planning, the location of industries, and the development of transportation systems and needs to encourage those designing public transportation and housing to ensure that new sources of air pollution are not being built into cities. Decades of economic and industrial growth have resulted in lifestyles that increase the demands on water resources simultaneous with increases in water pollution levels. The developing countries need to avoid the experiences of water pollution and associated disease outbreaks in industrial countries. Strategies to ensure sufficient pollution control must be identified at the same time as strategies to reduce water consumption.

High water use depletes supplies and increases salinity in groundwater aquifers, particularly in coastal regions. The impact of climate change must also be taken into consideration Vorosmarty and others Evidence shows that a number of chemicals that may be released into the air or water can cause adverse health effects. The term "bushranger" then evolved to refer to those who abandoned social rights and privileges to take up " robbery under arms " as a way of life, using the bush as their base.

These bushrangers were roughly analogous to British " highwaymen " and American "Old West outlaws", and their crimes often included robbing small-town banks or coach services. More than 2, bushrangers are believed to have roamed the Australian countryside, beginning with the convict bolters and ending after Ned Kelly 's last stand at Glenrowan. Bold Jack Donahue is recorded as the last convict bushranger.

He was reported in newspapers around as being responsible for an outbreak of bushranging on the road between Sydney and Windsor. Throughout the s he was regarded as the most notorious bushranger in the colony. Leading a band of escaped convicts, Donahue became central to Australian folklore as the Wild Colonial Boy. Bushranging was common on the mainland, but Van Diemen's Land Tasmania produced the most violent and serious outbreaks of convict bushrangers. Hundreds of convicts were at large in the bush, farms were abandoned and martial law was proclaimed.

Indigenous outlaw Musquito defied colonial law and led attacks on settlers. The increasing push of settlement, increased police efficiency, improvements in rail transport and communications technology, such as telegraphy , made it increasingly difficult for bushrangers to evade capture. Among the last bushrangers were the Kelly Gang, led by Ned Kelly , who were captured at Glenrowan in , two years after they were outlawed.

Kelly was born in Victoria to an Irish convict father, and as a young man he clashed with the Victoria Police. Following an incident at his home in , police parties searched for him in the bush. After he killed three policemen, the colony proclaimed Kelly and his gang wanted outlaws. A final violent confrontation with police took place at Glenrowan on 28 June Kelly, dressed in home-made plate metal armour and helmet, was captured and sent to jail. He was hanged for murder at Old Melbourne Gaol in November His daring and notoriety made him an iconic figure in Australian history, folklore, literature, art and film.

Some bushrangers, most notably Ned Kelly in his Jerilderie Letter, and in his final raid on Glenrowan, explicitly represented themselves as political rebels. Attitudes to Kelly, by far the most well-known bushranger, exemplify the ambivalent views of Australians regarding bushranging. Traditional Aboriginal society had been governed by councils of elders and a corporate decision making process, but the first European-style governments established after were autocratic and run by appointed governors —although English law was transplanted into the Australian colonies by virtue of the doctrine of reception, thus notions of the rights and processes established by the Magna Carta and the Bill of Rights were brought from Britain by the colonists.

Agitation for representative government began soon after the settlement of the colonies. William Wentworth established the Australian Patriotic Association Australia's first political party in to demand democratic government for New South Wales. The reformist attorney general, John Plunkett, sought to apply Enlightenment principles to governance in the colony, pursuing the establishment of equality before the law, first by extending jury rights to emancipists, then by extending legal protections to convicts, assigned servants and Aboriginal Australians.

Plunkett twice charged the colonist perpetrators of the Myall Creek massacre of Aboriginal Australians with murder, resulting in a conviction and his landmark Church Act of disestablished the Church of England and established legal equality between Anglicans, Catholics, Presbyterians and later Methodists. Men who possessed 1, pounds worth of property were able to stand for election and wealthy landowners were permitted up to four votes each in elections. Australia's first parliamentary elections were conducted for the New South Wales Legislative Council in , again with voting rights for males only tied to property ownership or financial capacity.

Voter rights were extended further in New South Wales in and elections for legislative councils were held in the colonies of Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania. By the midth century, there was a strong desire for representative and responsible government in the colonies of Australia, fed by the democratic spirit of the goldfields evident at the Eureka Stockade and the ideas of the great reform movements sweeping Europe , the United States and the British Empire. The end of convict transportation accelerated reform in the s and s. The Australian Colonies Government Act [] was a landmark development which granted representative constitutions to New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania and the colonies enthusiastically set about writing constitutions which produced democratically progressive parliaments—though the constitutions generally maintained the role of the colonial upper houses as representative of social and economic "interests" and all established constitutional monarchies with the British monarch as the symbolic head of state.

An innovative secret ballot was introduced in Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia in , in which the government supplied voting paper containing the names of candidates and voters could select in private. This system was adopted around the world, becoming known as the " Australian Ballot ". This right was extended to Victoria in and New South Wales the following year. The other colonies followed until, in , Tasmania became the last colony to grant universal male suffrage. Propertied women in the colony of South Australia were granted the vote in local elections but not parliamentary elections in Henrietta Dugdale formed the first Australian women's suffrage society in Melbourne in Women became eligible to vote for the Parliament of South Australia in This was the first legislation in the world permitting women also to stand for election to political office and, in , Catherine Helen Spence became the first female political candidate for political office, unsuccessfully standing for election as a delegate to the Federal Convention on Australian Federation.

Western Australia granted voting rights to women in Legally, indigenous Australian males generally gained the right to vote during this period when Victoria, New South Wales, Tasmania and South Australia gave voting rights to all male British subjects over Only Queensland and Western Australia barred Aboriginal people from voting. Thus, Aboriginal men and women voted in some jurisdictions for the first Commonwealth Parliament in Early federal parliamentary reform and judicial interpretation however sought to limit Aboriginal voting in practice—a situation which endured until rights activists began campaigning in the s. Though the various parliaments of Australia have been constantly evolving, the key foundations for elected parliamentary government have maintained an historical continuity in Australia from the s into the 21st century.

By the late s, a majority of people living in the Australian colonies were native born, although over 90 per cent were of British and Irish heritage. Historian Don Gibb suggests that bushranger Ned Kelly represented one dimension of the emerging attitudes of the native born population. Identifying strongly with family and mates, Kelly was opposed to what he regarded as oppression by Police and powerful Squatters. Almost mirroring the Australian stereotype later defined by historian Russel Ward, Kelly became "a skilled bushman, adept with guns, horses and fists and winning admiration from his peers in the district. The origins of distinctly Australian painting is often associated with this period and the Heidelberg School of the s—s. Artists such as Arthur Streeton, Frederick McCubbin and Tom Roberts applied themselves to recreating in their art a truer sense of light and colour as seen in Australian landscape.

Like the European Impressionists, they painted in the open air. These artists found inspiration in the unique light and colour which characterises the Australian bush. Their most recognised work involves scenes of pastoral and wild Australia, featuring the vibrant, even harsh colours of Australian summers. Australian literature was equally developing a distinct voice. Views of Australia at times conflicted—Lawson and Paterson contributed a series of verses to The Bulletin magazine in which they engaged in a literary debate about the nature of life in Australia: Lawson a republican socialist derided Paterson as a romantic, while Paterson a country born city lawyer thought Lawson full of doom and gloom. Paterson wrote the lyrics of the much-loved folksong Waltzing Matilda in The song has often been suggested as Australia's national anthem and Advance Australia Fair , the Australian national anthem since the late s, itself was written in Dennis wrote of laconic heroes in the Australian vernacular, while McKellar rejected a love of England's pleasant pastures in favour of what she termed a "Sunburnt Country" in her iconic poem: My Country A common theme throughout the nationalist art, music and writing of the late 19th century was the romantic rural or bush myth , ironically produced by one of the most urbanised societies in the world.

Paterson's well known poem Clancy of the Overflow, written in , evokes the romantic myth. While bush ballads evidenced distinctively Australian popular medium of music and of literature, Australian artists of a more classical mould—such as the opera singer Dame Nellie Melba , and painters John Peter Russell and Rupert Bunny—prefigured the 20th-century expatriate Australians who knew little of 'stockyard and rails' but would travel abroad to influence Western art and culture.

Despite suspicion from some sections of the colonial community especially in smaller colonies about the value of nationhood, improvements in inter-colonial transport and communication, including the linking of Perth to the south eastern cities by telegraph in , helped break down inter-colonial rivalries. Amid calls from London for the establishment of an intercolonial Australian army, and with the various colonies independently constructing railway lines, New South Wales Premier Henry Parkes addressed a rural audience in his Tenterfield Oration, stating that the time had come to form a national executive government: "Australia [now has] a population of three and a half millions, and the American people numbered only between three and four millions when they formed the great commonwealth of the United States.

The numbers were about the same, and surely what the Americans had done by war, the Australians could bring about in peace, without breaking the ties that held them to the mother country. Though Parkes would not live to see it, his vision would be achieved within a little over a decade, and he is remembered as the "father of federation". Increasing nationalism, a growing sense of national identity, improvements in transport and communications, as well as fears about immigration and defence all combined to encourage the movement, spurred on by organisations like the Australian Natives' Association.

Despite the growing calls for unification, loyalties to the British Empire remained strong. At a Federation Conference banquet in , Henry Parkes spoke of blood-kinship linking the colonies to Britain and a "race" for whom "the purpose of settling new countries has never had its equal on the face of the earth". In , representatives of the six colonies and New Zealand had met in Melbourne and called for the union of the colonies and for the colonial legislatures to nominate representatives to attend a constitutional convention.

The following year, the National Australasian Convention was held in Sydney, with all the future states and New Zealand represented. The delegates returned to their parliaments with the Bill, but progress was slow, as Australia faced its s economic Depression. Nevertheless, by five of the colonies elected representatives for a second Convention, which was conducted in Adelaide, Sydney and Melbourne over the space of a year, allowing time for consultation.

Queensland and Western Australia later moved to do the same, though New Zealand did not participate in the Convention. July , saw the Bill put to a series of referenda in four colonies, but New South Wales rejected the proposal. In , a second referendum put an amended Bill to the voters of the four colonies and Queensland and the Bill was endorsed. In March , delegates were dispatched to London, where approval for the Bill was sought from the Imperial Parliament. The Bill was put to the House of Commons and passed on 5 July and, soon after, was signed into law by Queen Victoria. Lord Hopetoun was dispatched from London, tasked with appointing an interim Cabinet to oversee the foundation of the Commonwealth and conduct of the first elections.

There was a more radical vision for a separate Australia by some colonists, including writer Henry Lawson , trade unionist William Lane and as found in the pages of the Sydney Bulletin. But by the end of , and after much colonial debate, the citizens of five of the six Australian colonies had voted in referendums in favour of a constitution to form a Federation. Western Australia voted to join in July From that point a system of federalism in Australia came into operation, entailing the establishment of an entirely new national government the Commonwealth government and an ongoing division of powers between that government and the States.

Labor declared it would offer support to the party which offered concessions and Edmund Barton 's Protectionists formed a government, with Alfred Deakin as Attorney-General. Barton promised to "create a high court, He proposed to extend conciliation and arbitration, create a uniform railway gauge between the eastern capitals, to introduce female federal franchise, to establish a The Labor Party the spelling "Labour" was dropped in had been established in the s, after the failure of the Maritime and Shearer's strikes. Its strength was in the Australian Trade Union movement "which grew from a membership of just under , in to more than half a million in As noted by the historian Ross McMullin, "In the national sphere Labor had taken the Protectionists as far in the direction of progressive legislation as possible.

In Western Australia, Forrest introduced a conciliation and arbitration bill in which brought trade unions into the state's social fabric for the first time. In addition, WA Labor scored another victory with the passage of legislation which extended workers' compensation. Under the premierships of Storey and Dooley in New South Wales, various reforms were carried out such as the establishment of the Rural Bank and the elimination of high school fees.

The Labor Party's rising support at elections, together with its formation of federal government in under Chris Watson , and again in , helped to unify competing conservative, free market and liberal anti-socialists into the Commonwealth Liberal Party in Although this party dissolved in , a successor to its version of "liberalism" in Australia which in some respects comprises an alliance of Millsian liberals and Burkian conservatives united in support for individualism and opposition to socialism can be found in the modern Liberal Party.

To represent rural interests, the Country Party today's National Party was founded in in Western Australia, and nationally in , from a number of state-based farmer's parties. The Immigration Restriction Act was one of the first laws passed by the new Australian parliament. This centrepiece of the 'White Australia Policy' aimed to restrict immigration from Asia especially China , where the population was vastly greater and the standard of living vastly lower and was similar to measures taken in other settler societies such as the United States, Canada and New Zealand.

It found strong support in the national parliament, arguments ranging from economic protection to simple racism. The law permitted a dictation test in any European language to be used to in effect exclude non-"white" immigrants. While the law allowed for the use of any European language, the English version was standardised and became known as the "Stewart" test after the Federal MP Stewart Parnaby who originally penned the exam. The Labor Party wanted to protect "white" jobs and pushed for clearer restrictions. A few politicians spoke of the need to avoid hysterical treatment of the question. But there is obligation Donald Cameron, a member from Tasmania, expressed a rare note of dissension in the parliament, saying that no race on earth had been "treated in a more shameful manner than have the Chinese Outside parliament, Australia's first Catholic cardinal , Patrick Francis Moran was politically active and denounced anti-Chinese legislation as "unchristian".

The popular press mocked the cardinal's position and the small European population of Australia generally supported the legislation and remained fearful of being overwhelmed by an influx of non-British migrants from the vastly different cultures of the highly populated empires to Australia's north. The law passed both houses of Parliament and remained a central feature of Australia's immigration laws until abandoned in the s. In the s, the Lyons government unsuccessfully attempted to exclude Egon Erwin Kisch, a German Czechoslovakian communist author from entering Australia, by means of a 'dictation test' in Scottish Gaelic. Concerns emerged that the law could be used for such political purposes. Before , units of soldiers from all six Australian colonies had been active as part of British forces in the Boer War.

When the British government asked for more troops from Australia in early , the Australian government obliged with a national contingent. Some 16, men had volunteered for service by the war's end in June But Australians soon felt vulnerable closer to home. Australians saw themselves in time of war a lonely, sparsely populated outpost. The Defence Act of reinforced the importance of Australian defence, and in February , Lord Kitchener provided further advice on a defence scheme based on conscription.

By , the battlecruiser Australia led the fledgling Royal Australian Navy. Historian Bill Gammage estimates that on the eve of war, Australia had , men "under arms of some sort". Historian Humphrey McQueen has it that working and living conditions for Australia's working classes in the early 20th century were of "frugal comfort. The Harvester Judgment of recognised the concept of a basic wage and in the Federal government also began an old age pension scheme. Together with the White Australia Policy and pioneering social policy, these developments have since been dubbed the Australian settlement. As a result of them, the new Commonwealth gained recognition as a laboratory for social experimentation and positive liberalism.

Catastrophic droughts plagued some regions in the late s and early 20th century and together with a growing rabbit plague , created great hardship in the rural area of Australia. Despite this, a number of writers "imagined a time when Australia would outstrip Britain in wealth and importance, when its open spaces would support rolling acres of farms and factories to match those of the United States. Some estimated the future population at million, million or more. Brady, whose book Australia Unlimited described Australia's inland as ripe for development and settlement, "destined one day to pulsate with life.

With the encouragement of Queensland, in , a British protectorate had been proclaimed over the southern coast of New Guinea and its adjacent islands. British New Guinea , was annexed outright in The possession was placed under the authority of the newly federated Commonwealth of Australia in and with passage of the Papua Act of , British New Guinea became the Australian Territory of Papua , with formal Australian administration beginning in The outbreak of war in Europe in August automatically involved "all of Britain's colonies and dominions". Prime Minister Andrew Fisher probably expressed the views of most Australians when during the election campaign of late July he said "Turn your eyes to the European situation, and give the kindest feelings towards the mother country I sincerely hope that international arbitration will avail before Europe is convulsed in the greatest war of all time But should the worst happen Australians will stand beside our own to help and defend her to the last man and the last shilling.

More than , Australian men volunteered to fight during the First World War between and from a total national population of 4. Historian Lloyd Robson estimates this as between one third and one half of the eligible male population. After the Australian Imperial Forces AIF was withdrawn in late , and enlarged to five divisions, most were moved to France to serve under British command. Light horsemen of the 4th and 12th Regiments captured heavily fortified Beersheba from Turk forces by means of a cavalry charge at full gallop on 31 October One of the last great cavalry charges in history, the attack opened a way for the allies to outflank the Gaza-Beersheba Line and drive the Ottomans back into Palestine.

The AIF's first experience of warfare on the Western Front was also the most costly single encounter in Australian military history. In July , at Fromelles, in a diversionary attack during the Battle of the Somme , the AIF suffered 5, killed or wounded in 24 hours. Two bitterly fought and divisive conscription referendums were held in Australia in and Both failed, and Australia's army remained a volunteer force. John Monash was appointed corps commander of the Australian forces in May and led some significant attacks in the final stages of the war.

British Field Marshal Montgomery later called him "the best general on the western front in Europe". Monash made the protection of infantry a priority and sought to fully integrate all the new technologies of warfare in both the planning and execution of battles, thus he wrote that infantry should not be sacrificed needlessly to enemy bayonets and machine guns—but rather should "advance under the maximum possible protection of the maximum possible array of mechanical resources, in the form of guns, machine-guns, tanks, mortars and aeroplanes".

His first operation at the relatively small Battle of Hamel demonstrated the validity of his approach and later actions before the Hindenburg Line in confirmed it. Monash was knighted in the field of battle by King George V following the 8 August advance during the Battle of Amiens. The 8th of August put the decline of [German] fighting power beyond all doubt". Amiens, fought between 8 and 11 August , marked the beginning of the allied advance that culminated in the 11 November Armistice ended the war. Over 60, Australians had died during the conflict and , were wounded, a high proportion of the , who had fought overseas.

While the Gallipoli campaign was a total failure militarily and Australians died, its memory was all-important. Gallipoli transformed the Australian mind and became an iconic element of the Australian identity and the founding moment of nationhood. The choice of date is often mystifying to non-Australians; it was after all, an allied invasion that ended in military defeat. Bill Gammage has suggested that the choice of 25 April has always meant much to Australians because at Gallipoli, "the great machines of modern war were few enough to allow ordinary citizens to show what they could do.

Hughes' signing of the Treaty of Versailles was the first time Australia had signed an international treaty. At one point Hughes declared: "I speak for 60, [Australian] dead". He went on to ask of Wilson; "How many do you speak for? Hughes demanded that Australia have independent representation within the newly formed League of Nations and was the most prominent opponent of the inclusion of the Japanese racial equality proposal, which as a result of lobbying by him and others was not included in the final Treaty, deeply offending Japan. Hughes was concerned by the rise of Japan. Though Japan occupied German possessions with the blessings of the British, Hughes was alarmed by this policy. In at the Peace Conference the Dominion leaders argued their case to keep their occupied German possessions and these territories were given as "Class C Mandates" to the respective Dominions.

Japan obtained control over the South Pacific Mandate, north of the equator. German New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago and Nauru were assigned to Australia as League of Nations Mandates : in the category of territories "formerly governed [by the Central Powers ] and which are inhabited by peoples not yet able to stand by themselves under the strenuous conditions of the modern world".

Thus, the Territory of New Guinea came under Australian administration. After the war, Prime Minister Billy Hughes led a new conservative force, the Nationalist Party , formed from the old Liberal party and breakaway elements of Labor of which he was the most prominent , after the deep and bitter split over Conscription. An estimated 12, Australians died as a result of the Spanish flu pandemic of , almost certainly brought home by returning soldiers. The success of the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia posed a threat in the eyes of many Australians, although to a small group of socialists, it was an inspiration. The Communist Party of Australia was formed in and, though remaining electorally insignificant, it obtained some influence in the trade union movement and was banned during World War II for its support for the Hitler-Stalin Pact and the Menzies Government unsuccessfully tried to ban it again during the Korean War.

Despite splits, the party remained active until its dissolution at the end of the Cold War. The Country Party today's National Party formed in to promulgate its version of agrarianism, which it called " Countrymindedness ". The goal was to enhance the status of the graziers operators of big sheep ranches and small farmers, and secure subsidies for them. Enduring longer than any other major party save the Labor party, it has generally operated in Coalition with the Liberal Party since the s , becoming a major party of government in Australia—particularly in Queensland. Other significant after-effects of the war included ongoing industrial unrest, which included the Victorian Police strike. Industrial disputes characterised the s in Australia.

Other major strikes occurred on the waterfront, in the coalmining and timber industries in the late s. The union movement had established the Australian Council of Trade Unions ACTU in in response to the Nationalist government's efforts to change working conditions and reduce the power of the unions. The consumerism, entertainment culture, and new technologies that characterised the s in the United States were also found in Australia.

Prohibition was not implemented in Australia, though anti-alcohol forces were successful in having hotels closed after 6 pm, and closed altogether in a few city suburbs. The fledgling film industry declined through the decade, over 2 million Australians attending cinemas weekly at venues. A Royal Commission in failed to assist and the industry that had begun so brightly with the release of the world's first feature film, The Story of the Kelly Gang , atrophied until its revival in the s.

Speaking in early , Bruce summed up the priorities and optimism of many Australians, saying that "men, money and markets accurately defined the essential requirements of Australia" and that he was seeking such from Britain. The migration campaign of the s, operated by the Development and Migration Commission, brought almost , Britons to Australia, although schemes to settle migrants and returned soldiers "on the land" were generally not a success. In Australia, the costs of major investment had traditionally been met by state and Federal governments and heavy borrowing from overseas was made by the governments in the s. A Loan Council was set up in to co-ordinate loans, three-quarters of which came from overseas.

Despite Imperial Preference, a balance of trade was not successfully achieved with Britain. Wheat and wool made up more than two-thirds of all Australian exports", a dangerous reliance on just two export commodities. Australia embraced the new technologies of transport and communication. Coastal sailing ships were finally abandoned in favour of steam, and improvements in rail and motor transport heralded dramatic changes in work and leisure. In there were 50, cars and lorries in the whole of Australia. By there were , The stage coach company Cobb and Co, established in , finally closed in Daredevil pilot, Sir Charles Kingsford Smith pushed the new flying machines to the limit, completing a round Australia circuit in and in traversed the Pacific Ocean, via Hawaii and Fiji from the US to Australia in the aircraft Southern Cross.

He went on to global fame and a series of aviation records before vanishing on a night flight to Singapore in This formalised the Balfour Declaration of , a report resulting from the Imperial Conference of British Empire leaders in London, which defined Dominions of the British empire in the following way: "They are autonomous Communities within the British Empire , equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, though united by a common allegiance to the Crown , and freely associated as members of the British Commonwealth of Nations.

However, Australia did not ratify the Statute of Westminster until According to historian Frank Crowley, this was because Australians had little interest in redefining their relationship with Britain until the crisis of World War II. The Australia Act removed any remaining links between the British Parliament and the Australian states. New South Wales has had one further territory surrendered, namely Jervis Bay Territory comprising 6, hectares, in The Northern Territory was transferred from the control of the South Australian government to the Commonwealth in Australia was deeply affected by the Great Depression of the s, particularly due to its heavy dependence on exports, especially primary products such as wool and wheat, Exposed by continuous borrowing to fund capital works in the s, the Australian and state governments were "already far from secure in , when most economic indicators took a turn for the worse.

Australia's dependence of exports left her extraordinarily vulnerable to world market fluctuations", according to economic historian Geoff Spenceley. Debt by the state of New South Wales accounted for almost half of Australia's accumulated debt by December The situation caused alarm amongst a few politicians and economists, notably Edward Shann of the University of Western Australia , but most political, union and business leaders were reluctant to admit to serious problems. In , Australian Finance magazine described loans as occurring with a "disconcerting frequency" unrivalled in the British Empire: "It may be a loan to pay off maturing loans or a loan to pay the interest on existing loans, or a loan to repay temporary loans from the bankers As the economy slowed in , so did manufacturing and the country slipped into recession as profits slumped and unemployment rose.

At elections held in October , the Labor Party was swept into power in a landslide victory ; Stanley Bruce , the former Prime Minister, lost his own seat. The new Prime Minister, James Scullin , and his largely inexperienced government were almost immediately faced with a series of crises. Hamstrung by their lack of control of the Senate, a lack of control over the banking system and divisions within their party over how best to deal with the situation, the government was forced to accept solutions that eventually split the party, as it had in Various "plans" to resolve the crisis were suggested; Sir Otto Niemeyer, a representative of the English banks who visited in mid, proposed a deflationary plan, involving cuts to government spending and wages.

Treasurer Ted Theodore proposed a mildly inflationary plan, while the Labor Premier of New South Wales , Jack Lang , proposed a radical plan which repudiated overseas debt. The "Premier's Plan" finally accepted by federal and state governments in June , followed the deflationary model advocated by Niemeyer and included a reduction of 20 per cent in government spending, a reduction in bank interest rates and an increase in taxation. In March , Lang announced that interest due in London would not be paid and the Federal government stepped in to meet the debt.

The Melbourne Premiers' Conference agreed to cut wages and pensions as part of a severe deflationary policy but Lang renounced the plan. The grand opening of the Sydney Harbour Bridge in provided little respite to the growing crisis straining the young federation. With multimillion-pound debts mounting, public demonstrations and move and counter-move by Lang and then Scullin, then Lyons federal governments, the Governor of New South Wales , Philip Game, had been examining Lang's instruction not to pay money into the Federal Treasury. Game judged it was illegal.

Lang refused to withdraw his order and, on 13 May, he was dismissed by Governor Game. At June elections, Lang Labor's seats collapsed. May had seen the creation of a new conservative political force, the United Australia Party formed by breakaway members of the Labor Party combining with the Nationalist Party. They remained in power until September The Lyons government has often been credited with steering recovery from the depression, although just how much of this was owed to their policies remains contentious.

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