❤❤❤ Frederick Douglass: Abolitionist Movement

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Frederick Douglass: Abolitionist Movement



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AMERICAN EXPERIENCE - The Abolitionists - Frederick Douglass \u0026 William Lloyd Garrison - PBS

The British abolitionists, led by William Wilberforce in the early 19th century, campaigned against Britain's role in the slave trade and sought to outlaw enslavement in British colonies. At the same time, Quaker groups in America began working in earnest to abolish slavery in the United States. The first organized group formed to end enslavement in America began in Philadelphia in , and the city was a hotbed of abolitionist sentiment in the s, when it was the capital of the United States. Though enslavement was successively outlawed in the northern states in the early s, the institution of slavery was firmly entrenched in the South. And agitation against enslavement came to be regarded as a major source of discord between regions of the country.

In the s anti-slavery factions began spreading from New York and Pennsylvania to Ohio, and the early beginnings of the abolitionist movement began to be felt. At first, the opponents to enslavement were considered far outside the mainstream of political thought and abolitionists had little real impact on American life. In the s the movement gathered some momentum. William Lloyd Garrison began publishing The Liberator in Boston, and it became the most prominent abolitionist newspaper. A pair of wealthy businessmen in New York City, the Tappan brothers, began to finance abolitionist activities.

In the American Anti-Slavery Society began a campaign, funded by the Tappans, to send anti-slavery pamphlets into the South. The pamphlet campaign led to enormous controversy, which included bonfires of seized abolitionist literature being burned in the streets of Charleston, South Carolina. The pamphlet campaign was seen to be impractical. Resistance to the pamphlets galvanized the South against any anti-slavery sentiment, and it made abolitionists in the North realize that it would not be safe to campaign against enslavement on southern soil. The northern abolitionists tried other strategies, most prominently the petitioning of Congress.

Former president John Quincy Adams, serving in his post-presidency as a Massachusetts congressman, became a prominent anti-slavery voice on Capitol Hill. Under right of petition in the U. Constitution, anyone, including enslaved people, could send petitions to Congress. Adams led a movement to introduce petitions seeking the freedom of enslaved people, and it so inflamed members of the House of Representatives from the pro-slavery states that the discussion of enslavement was banned in the House chamber.

For eight years one of the main battles against enslavement took place on Capitol Hill, as Adams battled against what came to be known as the gag rule. In the s a formerly enslaved person, Frederick Douglass , took to the lecture halls and spoke about his life. Douglass became a very forceful anti-slavery advocate, and even spent time speaking out against American slavery in Britain and Ireland. By the late s the Whig Party was splitting over the issue of slavery. Nonetheless, Douglass and Pitts remained married until his death 11 years later. After settling as a free man with his wife Anna in New Bedford in , Douglass was eventually asked to tell his story at abolitionist meetings, and he became a regular anti-slavery lecturer. Several days after the story ran, Douglass delivered his first speech at the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society's annual convention in Nantucket.

Crowds were not always hospitable to Douglass. While participating in an lecture tour through the Midwest, Douglass was chased and beaten by an angry mob before being rescued by a local Quaker family. Following the publication of his first autobiography in , Douglass traveled overseas to evade recapture. He set sail for Liverpool on August 16, , and eventually arrived in Ireland as the Potato Famine was beginning. He remained in Ireland and Britain for two years, speaking to large crowds on the evils of slavery. In , the famed writer and orator returned to the United States a free man.

In New Bedford, Massachusetts, Douglass joined a Black church and regularly attended abolitionist meetings. He also subscribed to Garrison's The Liberator. At the urging of Garrison, Douglass wrote and published his first autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave , in The book was a bestseller in the United States and was translated into several European languages. Although the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass garnered Douglass many fans, some critics expressed doubt that a former enslaved person with no formal education could have produced such elegant prose.

Douglass published three versions of his autobiography during his lifetime, revising and expanding on his work each time. My Bondage and My Freedom appeared in In , he was the only African American to attend the Seneca Falls convention on women's rights. Elizabeth Cady Stanton asked the assembly to pass a resolution stating the goal of women's suffrage. Many attendees opposed the idea. Douglass, however, stood and spoke eloquently in favor, arguing that he could not accept the right to vote as a Black man if women could not also claim that right. The resolution passed. By the time of the Civil War , Douglass was one of the most famous Black men in the country. He used his status to influence the role of African Americans in the war and their status in the country.

In , Douglass conferred with President Abraham Lincoln regarding the treatment of Black soldiers, and later with President Andrew Johnson on the subject of Black suffrage. President Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation , which took effect on January 1, , declared the freedom of enslaved people in Confederate territory. Despite this victory, Douglass supported John C. Slavery everywhere in the United States was subsequently outlawed by the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment to the U.

Douglass was appointed to several political positions following the war. After two years, he resigned from his ambassadorship over objections to the particulars of U. He was later appointed minister-resident and consul-general to the Republic of Haiti, a post he held between and In , Douglass visited one of his former owners, Thomas Auld. Douglass had met with Auld's daughter, Amanda Auld Sears, years before. The visit held personal significance for Douglass, although some criticized him for the reconciliation.

Douglass became the first African American nominated for vice president of the United States as Victoria Woodhull 's running mate on the Equal Rights Party ticket in Nominated without his knowledge or consent, Douglass never campaigned. Nonetheless, his nomination marked the first time that an African American appeared on a presidential ballot. Douglass died on February 20, , of a massive heart attack or stroke shortly after returning from a meeting of the National Council of Women in Washington, D. We strive for accuracy and fairness. If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! Subscribe to the Biography newsletter to receive stories about the people who shaped our world and the stories that shaped their lives. Frederick Jones was an inventor best known for the development of refrigeration equipment used to transport food and blood during World War II.

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