🔥🔥🔥 Fanny Kembles Journal Essay

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Fanny Kembles Journal Essay



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True Justice International - Fanny Kemble

British auctioneer and theater patron English school teacher, author, and Mitford tutor. Worked at M. Quentin School at 22 Hans Place, London , where Mary Russell Mitford attended as a student, and where she in company with Rowden, attended plays at the London theatres. The St. Quentin school at Hans Place was founded by Dominique de St. Quentin had to sell the Reading school due to gambling debts he accumulated in the company of Richard Valpy and George Mitford. When the St. After the death of St.

Rowden" Caroline Lamb. Early in her playwriting career, Mitford attempted an adaptation of his Fiesco which was never performed. British actor, author, theater manager Appeared with Kean and Charles Kemble. Married Cecilia Kemble. English author, politician, and theater manager Managed Drury Lane. A prominent Whig politician. Born Brecon, Brecknockshire, Wales.

Died London. Considered the best tragic actress of her era, better than her three actor-brothers. Member of the Kemble acting clan. Most famous role was Lady Macbeth. British actress. Appeared as Belvidera in Venice Preserved and Mrs. Haller in The Stranger. Sloman died in Charleston, SC at the age of Horace and his older brother James wrote and published Rejected Addresses: Or, The New Theatrum Poetarum in , which parodied the styles of 21 poets and dramatists in a series of fake addresses to be delivered on stage and supposedly rejected by the managers of Drury Lane Theatre for a competition they had sponsored to celebrate the rebuilding of their theater in October following a fire. Sophocles is best known for his cycle of Oedipus plays , and particularly the tragedy Oedipus Tyrranus otherwise known in Latin or English forms as Oedipus Rex , or Oedipus the King.

As an Athenian citizen, Sophocles held many roles, such as serving on the treasury, leading the paean choral chant , serving as a a strategoi armed forces official ; and was a junior colleague of Pericles. Bricklayer and beer retailer of Three Mile Cross , as noted by Needham on a list of local tradespeople, drawn from the Post Office Directory of Berkshire, edition. He is not listed in the edition. Coles observes that Talfourd secured a position through Henry Crabb Robinson to write legal reports for The Times to afford this marriage.

In , they lived at 56 Russell Square, St. George, Bloomsbury. On May 1, , Rachael and the five children were all baptized into the Church of England. After the death of her husband, she lived at Margate, Kent, where she died on February 12, Close friend, literary mentor, and frequent correspondent of Mary Russell Mitford. Edward Talfourd and Anne Isabella Noon. His father was a brewer and later established a lunatic asylum for female patients at Normand House, Fulham , which he ran until his death, and the supervision of which was later conducted by his wife and his daughter Anne. John, Hackney, Middlesex. Rachel was the daughter of radical politician and writer John Towill Rutt.

Talfourd was educated at the newly-established Mill Hill school, a dissenting academy in Reading, from to He attended Dr. He completed a legal apprenticeship with Joseph Christy, special pleader, in , and was called to the bar in London in He ultimately earned a D. Doctor of Civil Laws from Oxford on June 20, While establishing his practice as a barrister and special pleader, he worked as legal correspondent for The Times , reporting on the Oxford Circuit , and also continued his literary interests. He was knighted in English author Died Cork, of consumption. Most successful work, The Honeymoon or Honey Moon , began its run just before his death. He was born on December 7, at St. He was a friend and literary mentor to Mary Russell Mitford.

He received from Oxford a B. He took orders in the Church of England in He became the Headmaster at Reading School, Reading, Berkshire, in and served until , at which time he turned the Headmastership over to his youngest son Francis E. Valpy and continued in semi-retirement until his death in During his tenure as Headmaster of Reading Grammar School for boys over the course of fifty years, he expanded the boarding school and added new buildings.

Valpy , were all much used as school texts throughout the nineteenth century. Valpy enlisted Mitford to write reviews of the productions for the Reading Mercury. Richard Valpy was married twice and had twelve children, eleven of whom lived to adulthood. His first wife was Martha Cornelia de Cartaret ; Richard and Martha were married about and they had one daughter, Martha Cartaretta Cornelia , born Together they had six sons and five daughters and ten of their eleven children survived to adulthood. Best-known today for his satirical novel Candide British actor. Used the professional name "Mr. Appeared at Covent Garden. English author Born and died London..

Wrote The Duchess of Malfi play. Blacksmith recorded by Needham on a list of local tradespeople drawn from the Post Office Directory of Berkshire , edition. Willis is listed by Needham as having "no place," and his name does not appear in the edition of the Directory. Performed at Covent Garden and Drury Lane between and Rival of Kean. Known for his Hamlet. Written about by Washington Irving. Nicholson , who was the widow of Jeremiah Nicholson, D. An annotated bibliography, led to a relational database of the more than books and persons represented in the 13, biographical chapters in those books. She has consulted the team on prosopography details in letters encoding and the first edition of Our Village. Research interests include: representations of Gypsies in Romantic and Victorian literature and art, the picturesque and the work of Mary Russell Mitford.

Her teaching and research are centered around eighteenth- and nineteenth-century British literature, with a focus on British Romanticism. In her spare time, Aymee enjoys reading, writing, quilting, sewing, and embroidery. Brooke is currently working on another digital archive that focuses on Emily Dickinson. She is currently working as a research assistant on the Digital Mitford Project. She plans to go on to graduate work and teaching in Elementary Education. Parisian is a book historian and bibliographer whose research has focused on a a range of subjects including the first White House library, Frances Burney , Alice in Wonderland , and eighteenth-century book trade ledgers.

Cox Catherine S. She recently joined the Mitford project, which she sees as an exciting opportunity to create digital resources in a collaborative environment. He is currently at work on project that examines the impact of conservative religous discourse on the cultural politics and aesthetics of early ninteenth-century British literature. Beshero-Bondar researches British Romanticism in poetry and drama from the s - s. Her published articles in ELH , Genre , Philological Quarterly , and The Wordsworth Circle investigate the poetry of Robert Southey, Mary Russell Mitford, and Lord Byron in context with 18th- and 19th-century views of revolution, world empires, natural sciences, and theater productions.

Clark Honors College at the University of Oregon. Hood Eric Ph. He specializes in literary theory, eighteenth- and nineteenth-century British poetry particularly, the epic , and intellectual networks. While he has only been involved with Digital Humanities applications since , he spent many years marking up ethnographic data in the mids. He is from Huntsville, Alabama. Bawden John Ph. He teaches courses in various areas of Latin American History, as well as courses in Digital History. Her interests include bibliographical studies and book history, and she plans to pursue graduate studies in Library and Information Science. Rovira James Ph. He currently lives in the greater Columbus area with his wife Sheridan and his children Penn, Grace, and Zoe.

He is currently working on another on-going digital archive that focuses on the curation and visulization of graveyard records at Brush Creek Cemetery in Irwin, PA. His project, theGraveyard , involves the collection and study of data collected from on-site gravestone inscriptions, burial records, and gravesite maps. Jonathan is a member of the international English honor society Sigma Tau Delta, and a research assistant on the Digital Mitford Project. She is currently working on a biography and digital edition of the letters of best-selling Victorian novelist Dinah Mulock Craik. She is very pleased to be part of Digital Mitford. Donovan-Condron Kellie Ph.

She writes primarily about the intersection of urban literature and the Gothic in the Romantic era. Her research interests are an interdisciplinary mix of literature, history, and material culture. In the summer of , she was selected to be a summer scholar in the National Endowment for the Humanities seminar "Reassessing Romanticism. Previously, she worked on a grant to digitize a collection of 17th- and 18th-century maps and ephemeral materials through the Tufts University Perseus Project.

Wilson Lisa M. She is also the Director of interdisciplinary Learning Communities for the campus, and currently serves as Chair of Faculty Senate. She is also interested in book history and bibliographical studies, particularly in the study of authorship in the long nineteenth century She is currently working on a monograph on Romantic-period authorship and literary celebrity. She is studying and pursuing a career in screen writing for television at Loyola Marymount University.

She has recently contributed to Victoriographies and the Norton Anthology , and was formerly associate faculty at Notre Dame of Maryland University. Her dissertation uses contemporary sociolinguistics to examine the nineteenth-century tales novel as a useful mode for exploration in the areas of genre, narrative, and gender studies. She is a Ph. Klamer Melissa Editor Ph. English in progress, expected She has published and contributed extensively to print and digital textual scholarship of Emily Dickinson and her circle, especially Susan Huntington Gilbert Dickinson. Murray M. Duck Patricia M. Research Assistant Consultant University of Montevallo Quinton Reed is an alumnus of the University of Montevallo, where he attended from to He currently serves as the editor for Gold Orchid Publishing in Ceredigion, Wales, and is a freelance editor and copywriter in Portland, Oregon.

His areas of interest include psychoanalytical and disability studies, particularly in postmodern literature, as well as Gothic and dystopian literature. He is also interested in the life sciences, particularly zoology and anatomy, and the significance of animals and illness in literature. She graduated with a B. She is currently working on a digital archive of her own. Her project, The Restoration of Nell Nelson , started in spring as research for her capstone thesis in history. The Nell Nelson archive intends to restore the importance of a female investigative reporter that exposed the harmful effects of industrialization in Chicago at the turn of the twentieth century.

Nesvet Rebecca Ph. She is a Founding Editor for Digital Mitford. Before attending Montevallo, Sylvan spent a year and a half in Ireland with her mom who thankfully is living back here in the US now , and she gained a lot of cultural knowledge and a love for the Irish countryside. At UM, she found a love for studying nature and the environment in texts, especially in Romantic texts. She plans to attend graduate school to specialize in Restoration literature. Webb Samantha Ph. D Professor of English Founding Editor Fiction University of Montevallo Samantha Webb is Professor of English, specializing in British Romantic literature, with a particular focus on the intersection of food, agricultural politics, and ecology.

Cantwell Sara Consultant B. She specializes in the writing of poetry and creative non-fiction. In fall , she began work on an M. She completed her M. She aspires to become a teacher, and to coach basketball, softball, volleyball, or cheerleading. She has a passion for reading, crafts, and games, and plans on pursuing a career in game design after graduation. Her interests include scholarly editing and British and American fiction of the Romantic period.

Triplette Stacey Ph. She studies the literature of medieval and early modern Spain, France, and England. Berkshire Record Office Holds 11 letters, as well as transcripts of Mitford papers--possibly of material at the Huntingdon. The majority of the letters in this collection are addressed to William Cox Bennett , and one to Chorley. Boston Public Library Holds 17 letters.

Cambridge University: Fitzwilliam Museum? No record at the Cambridge FW library archive. National Archives lists that they hold " letters 34 from Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Eton College? No record found at library, but National Archives lists they hold letters from Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Some transcriptions of these letters may be at the Berkshire Records Office. New York Public Library 74 letters in 4 collections here, spanning to Berg Collection of English and American Literature are described as "a synthetic collection consisting of manuscripts, correspondence, and portraits of the author.

National Library of Scotland, Manuscript Collections? No record found at this library, but the National Archives lists letters from MRM to Blackwoods magazine , spanning to Possibly these are actually at Reading Central Library. Anderdon 57 letters, The second collection contains letters from MRM to various recipients on Our Village , as well as manuscripts of poems and drama. Parker Ashante Research Assistant B. Calderwood Austin Research Assistant M.

As part of Dr. Murray Chelsie Research Assistant M. She also worked on Digital Mitford in She is a native of Sacramento and is double majoring in Political Science and Spanish. After she graduates, she plans to attend law school and to one day become a public defender. She worked on Digital Mitford in Her areas of interest include mythology, intermedia, critical theory, and postmodern poetry.

She is originally from the state of Maryland. Hailey is an English major, concentrating on British literature and the classics. In fall , she begins a M. She received her B. She is also at work on an M. Jaime has worked on the Digital Mitford project since Murphy Kristen Research Assistant M. She is originally from New Delhi, India, where she was born and completed her high school education. After graduation she hopes to work with the UN and start her own nonprofit in India someday.

Paine Margo Research Assistant B. She worked with the Digital Mitford Project during Fall Hebert Nathaniel Research Assistant B. Sasu Perdita Research Assistant B. Interested in archival work, she was drawn to the Digital Mitford project in order to learn more about the editing and coding process. After graduation, Rebecca hopes to go into the editing and publishing business for book and magazine companies. She specializes in the writing of creative non-fiction and of historical screenplays. She is at work on an M. Tracy has worked on the Digital Mitford project from Fall to Fall She presented with Dr. She is particularly interested in the application of aesthetic theory to British literature of the late Victorian and Modernist periods.

She believes in a holistic approach to literature where one combines an understanding of context and content to inform critical analysis. She is also commited to the provision and accessiblity of scholarly research. Barr William Research Assistant B. He worked on Digital Mitford in Fall Sainbert Wilmina Research Assistant B. She is from Valley Stream, New York, and plans to begin graduate study in the teaching of English as a second language. Robin loves movies and photography. Harness He corresponded with W. Coles and W. This may be William Harness or A. Ackermann R. Ackermann was a publishing firm located in London founded by Rudolf Ackermann , publisher and designer Publisher of volumes of the annual Forget Me Not , in which Mitford published several short works.

Valpy A. Valpy was a publishing firm founded and run by A. John Valpy. British publisher of several of Mitford 's early works of poetry, including: her Poems , Poems, second edition , Christina , Watlington Hill , and Narrative Poems on the Female Character. Richard Valpy. The firm was active between the s and the s. Source: WorldCat. In this form, the firm flourished between and Baldwin also published under his own name as R. Baldwin, and in partnership with Cradock as Baldwin and Cradock. Baldwin was also the printer for the London Magazine.

The firm was located in London with premises at 47 Paternoster-Row. Behr's Library B. Behr's Library was a publishing firm located in Berlin. German publisher of an early reprint in English of Mitford 's Rienzi in Source: WorldCat, Hathi Trust. The firm purchased rights to the titles in Bohn's Standard Library series from George Bohn in , and the firm reprinted editions of Mitford 's Our Village based on the two-volume Bohn edition first published in Bentley was a publishing firm founded by Richard Bentley after the dissolution of his partnership with Henry Colburn. The firm was located in London with premises at 8 New Burlington Street. Bentley also founded the periodical Bentley's Miscellany , initially edited by Charles Dickens.

Publisher of first edition of Mitford 's Belford Regis in Later publisher in ordinary to Her Majesty [Queen Victoria]. Palmer are members of. Blackie and Son, Ltd. The firm started by selling religious and reference books by subscription; they later specialized in single-volume children's books, textbooks, and reprints of works published as Blackie's English Classics and the Kennett Library. The firm published a collection of stories from Mitford 's Our Village in William Blackwood and Sons William Blackwood and Sons was a publishing firm located in Edinburgh and London founded by William Blackwood in and continued by his sons after his death in ; publisher throughout the nineteenth century of books as well as Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine.

In , the firm published a selection of Mitford 's Our Village stories designed for the juvenile textbook market as part of Blackwood's Educational Series. Bliss E. Bliss was a publishing firm located in New York founded and run by Elam Bliss The firm had premises at Broadway. Flourished s and s. Also affiliated with Elihu White as the firm E. Bliss and E. Henry G. Bohn Henry G. Bohn was a publishing firm located in London and founded by George Henry Bohn , the son of a German bookbinder. He started the Bohn's Standard Library series , which eventually included more than seven hundred titles. In , the firm produced a two-volume "new series" reprinted edition of Mitford 's Our Village. Bohn's volume one new series included substantial selections from Our Village volumes one and two, and part of volume three; Volume two new series included selections from the remainder of volume three plus volumes four and five.

Publisher of a reprint of Mitford 's Belford Regis. American publisher of an early reprint of Mitford 's Rienzi in House of Bourbon. Dynasty that ruled France from and Cadell and W. Davies T. Davies was a publishing firm founded by Thomas Cadell the elder — and continued by his son Thomas Cadell with partner William Davies. The firm was located in London and flourished from the s to the s.

Publisher of the Imperial Magazine. Caldwell H. Flourished s to s. The firm published an undated collection of stories from Mitford 's Our Village , likely in the s. Publisher of the first American edition of Mitford 's Belford Regis in Flourished from s to s ; specialized in publishing guidebooks and language dictionaries. Colloquialism for the Monarchist faction in the English Civil Wars Century Co.

It began as a subsidiary of Charles Scribner's Sons. It published the juvenile periodical St. Nicholas Magazine. Court of Chancery Court founded in Norman England, adjudicating equity cases with a tradition of leniency. This court had powers to cancel debts in cases of poverty. Publisher of volumes of the annual Finden's Tableaux edited by Mitford between and Chatto and Windus Chatto and Windus was a publishing firm located in London. Publisher of an reprint of Mitford 's Country Stories. Church of England. The firm operated between and after Henry Colburn took his printer, Richard Bentley , into partnership.

The firm established the Standard Novelists series in the s, which reprinted triple-decker novels in single-volume editions selling for six shillings, including the novels of Jane Austen ; the series was continued by Richard Bentley. Archibald Constable Archibald Constable was a publishing firm located in Edinburgh founded by Archibald Constable in He bought the Scots Magazine in and established the Edinburgh Review in Hunter joined as partner. Scott transferred to John Ballantyne in , but returned to Constable in and Constable purchased the copyright to Scott 's Waverley in The firm also published the Annual Register.

Located in Westminster Hall since For detailed historical information, see Wikipedia entry. Dent J. Dent and Company. The firm continued as J. The firm later operated under J. Dent, Ltd. The firm began by publishing limited editions of classic literature between and , including works by Charles Lamb and Jane Austen ; these editions were small runs printed on handmade paper. Dent established the Temple Library imprint in , which included a Temple Shakespeare. Dent planned the Everyman's Library reprint series in as a series of one thousand texts to be sold at one shilling each; his son Hugh edited the series after he joined the firm in In , the firm published a collection of stories from Mitford 's Our Village in its Temple Classics series reprinted in Dent and co.

Dutton E. Dutton was a publishing firm founded in by Edward Payson Dutton in Boston ; the firm expanded and relocated to New York in In , Dutton became the American distributor of J. Dent 's Everyman's Library series of reprints. Dutton published collections of Mitford stories in and with Dent's Everyman's Library after The firm was acquired by Penguin Group in and the label continues as a boutique brand within Penguin.

The firm was active in the 's. Eton College Boarding school for boys, located in Eton, Berkshire. Fairbrother S. Fairbrother was a publishing firm affiliated with the Lyceum Print Office, located in London. Founded by Samuel Glover Fairbrother. A Romantic Opera in Two Acts. Folio Society Folio Society is a publishing firm located in London , specializing in hard cover reprints of classic works in English. The firm was founded in by Charles Ede , Christopher Sandford , and Alan Bott and initially operated as a membership-based organization that sold books by subscription. In , the firm published a collection of stories from Mitford 's Our Village based on Harrap 's edition and illustrated with woodcuts by Joan Hassall originally produced for Harrap.

Garrett Press, Inc. As Bell and Daldy, the firm purchased rights to the titles in Bohn's Standard Library series from Bohn in , and reprinted editions of Mitford 's Our Village based on the two-volume Bohn edition first published in Gilley W. Gilley was a publishing firm founded by William B. Gilley ? The firm was located in New York , and had premises at 92 Broadway. The firm was associated with J. Seymour, printer, and Van Winkle and Wiley, printers. Gilley also published in partnership under W. Gilley and H. Gilley was first American publisher of Julian. They also published American reprints of the works of Barbara Hofland.

The firm was located in London and flourished from until Colburn's death in The firm's first publishing success was Caroline Lamb 's Glenarvon and Colburn would later go on to publish numerous fashionable "silver fork" novels in the early nineteenth century. Johnson and Thomas Northmore. They were intended to bring together middle-class reformers with working-class radicals in order to achieve reformist aims such as universal male suffrage.

Harper Bros. The firm operated as Harper Bros. George G. Flourished 's to s. Specialized in high quality, highly-illustrated books, particularly educational titles. In , the firm published an influential collection of stories from Mitford 's Our Village illustrated with woodcuts by Joan Hassall. Those who convicted him and signed the death warrant were subsequently termed the Regicides [See Britannica. His house became a center for liberal and Whig politicians, writers, and artists.

See Coles , 16, p. House of Commons. The "lower" house of the bicameral Parliament, the Commons was established in the mid-thirteenth century. Publisher of the first edition of Mitford 's Atherton, and Other Tales in Hurst and Co. Italians People from Italy J. Lippincott J. Lippincott was a publishing firm located in Philadelphia. Publisher of a reprint of Mitford 's Country Stories. Dicks J. Dicks was a publishing firm founded by John Dicks and located in London with premises at Strand. John Duncombe and Co. Duncombe was a publishing firm founded by John Duncombe. The firm was located in London and had premises at 10 Middle Row, Holborn. Publisher of Mitford 's Charles I in Their missionary efforts between the 16th and 17th centuries played a significant role in the transmission of knowledge and culture between China and the West.

Publisher of a reprint series of acting editions of plays, Cumberland's British Theatre and Cumberland's Minor Theatre , in the 's , as well as other reprint series. The firm was affiliated with engraver R. Cruikshank, who illustrated some of their volumes of plays. Source: WorldCat, Google Books. Robinson J. Robinson was a publishing firm located in Baltimore. First American publisher of Mitford 's Rienzi in This Longman partnership flourished in the s and s.

Publisher of volumes of the annual Literary Souvenir , in which Mitford published several short works. Macmillan is a publishing firm founded in by Daniel Macmillan and Alexander Macmillan , two brothers from the Isle of Arran, Scotland. In , the firm published an influential collection of stories from Mitford 's Our Village , with an extensive introduction by Anne Thackeray Ritchie and with new black and white illustrations by Hugh Thomson. The Macmillan edition of Our Village reprints the "Walks in the Country" subseries of sketches and re-orders them chronologically to follow the seasons, winter-spring-summer-fall.

The firm produced a limited-run "large paper" edition in red cloth as well as a "small paper" quarto edition bound in green cloth, some with gilt-stamped covers. The large paper edition was limited to copies and used the same plates as the small paper edition. It was formerly the governing body for cricket worldwide, as well as in England and Wales, and retains the copyright for the Laws of Cricket, first published in House of Medici Dynasty that ruled various Italian territories from to , excepting in and , and also provided France with several queens.

Minerva Press Press operated by William Lane from to Minerva Press was a major publisher of Gothic novels and other popular fiction. Mitford Mary Russell Mitford and her parents , and members of her household. William P. In , the firm published a collection of stories from Mitford 's Our Village. Oxford University Press Oxford University Press is a publishing firm located in Oxford and London , the largest university press in the world and the second-oldest after Cambridge University Press. In , the firm published a collection of stories from Mitford 's Our Village in their Oxford World's Classics series , based on Harrap 's edition and illustrated with woodcuts by Joan Hassall originally produced for Harrap.

Penguin Books Penguin Books is a publishing firm with offices in London , New York , and throughout the English-speaking world, currently affiliated with Random House and one of the five largest publishers of works in English in the world. It was founded in by Sir Allen Lane as a subsidiary of the publishing firm The Bodley Head and became a separate company the following year. In the s, Penguin began marketing inexpensive paperbacks of classic works, sold for sixpence in small high street stores such as Woolworth's, in what would eventually developed into the Penguin Classics series. In , the firm published a paperback collection of stories from Mitford 's Our Village. The court was driven to exile in Savona between and , but restored to Rome after a treaty with Napoleon.

Prelacy Prelates. Colloquially, the Archbishops and bishops of the Church of England. Charles Gerstenberg and Richard Ettinger in Its members were not all Presbyterian by religious persuasion, but they sought support for Presbyterianism as a state sanctioned church. They were opposed by the Independents and leaders of the New Model Army. Councillors to the British king or queen. Chambers and other artists and architects sought to establish a British national "society for promoting the Arts of Design," a society that would sponsor an annual exhibition later the Summer Exhibition as well as a School of Design later the Royal Academy Schools.

Thirty-four founding members were elected; today, the society elects no more than 80 members at one time as Royal Academicians Members of the Royal Academy, RA. The institution moved to Trafalgar Square in the s , to share space with the newly-founded National Gallery , and remained there until The firm had premises in Fleet Street , then at St. Dunstan's House in Fetter Lane. In , the firm published an edition of a selection of stories from Mitford 's Our Village , illustrated with thirteen leaves of plates. The firm subsequently published additional versions of this edition into the s.

Specialized in light literature and were a successor to Henry Colburn 's circulating library business. First publisher of Mitford 's Country Stories in Schloss A. Schloss was a publishing firm located in London founded by Albert Schloss. Publisher of volumes of the annual English Bijou Almanac also called Schloss's Bijou Almanac between and , volumes of which Mitford edited and to which she also contributed. The Scriblerians organized in and disbanded in after the deaths of its founders, Pope and Swift. Seeley and Co. In the s and s, co-published a number of works with Macmillan and Co. Samuel French Samuel French is a publishing firm located in New York , founded by Samuel French — and specializing in theatrical publication and the licensing of plays.

Affiliated with London theatrical publisher T. Publisher of an abridged version, designed for acting, of Mitford 's Rienzi in It is now an imprint of publishing company Pan MacMillan. William Coles inquires for information about them in a letter to Needham. He cites an article that appeared in the Reading Mercury on July 7, Egerton T. Egerton was a publishing firm founded by publisher and bookseller Thomas Egerton that flourished between and Egerton also published in partnership with John Egerton d.

The firm was located in London with premises at Charing Cross. The firm published Jane Austen 's first three novels. Hookham, Jr. The firm was located in London with premises on Bond Street. The firm published several novels by Thomas Love Peacock. Lowndes T. Lowndes was a publishing firm founded by Thomas Lowndes and continued in conjunction with Thomas's son, William Thomas Lowndes, the bibliographer. The firm was located in London and flourished until Lowndes's death in The firm published several novels by Frances Burney at the end of their tenure.

Taylor and Hessey London publishers at 93 Fleet Street , began around The firm included John Taylor and J. Hessey T. Lacy was a publishing firm founded by Thomas Hailes Lacy and located in London. Affiliated with New York theatrical publisher Samuel French. Publisher of a reprint of Mitford 's Rienzi in Ticknor, Reed, and Fields Ticknor, Reed, and Fields was a publishing firm located in Boston founded by William Ticknor , who was eventually joined by junior partner James Thomas Fields ; American publisher of Mitford 's works through her friendship with partner Fields , who had sought Mitford 's acquaintance in England.

Twickenham Coach or Stage T. Werner Laurie T. Werner Laurie was a publishing firm located in London. Publisher of a reprint of Mitford 's Belford Regis in Unit Library, Ltd. The Unit Library, Ltd. Richard Valpy and his family, including his first and second wife, his daughters , including Penelope and Catherine one or more of whom were friends with with Mary Russell Mitford , and his sons, including John Valpy. Walter Scott Publishing Co. The firm was founded by Sir Walter Scott , later 1st Baronet of Beauclerc 17 August — 8 April , a mason, building contractor, and publisher born in Abbey Town, Cumberland and no relation to the author Walter Scott. The firm produced single-volume editions of Mitford 's Our Village containing selections of stories from the entire series in the s and s.

Webb A family in Wokingham connected with a brewery there, frequent correspondents with Mary Russell Mitford in the s and s. Weylandite Weyland supporter; On March 16, , an election in Reading was held. Whittaker G. Whittaker was a publishing firm located in London , founded and run by George Byrom Whittaker , who was also a bookseller. George Whittaker published under this firm name as well as under G. Whittaker , the firm founded and run by himself and his brother William Budd Whittaker.

This company was a successor to the organizations founded by George Whittaker and his brother William Budd Whittaker. The firm was active between and Whittaker was a publishing firm located in London , founded and run by George Whittaker and his brother William Budd Whittaker. They had premises at Ave-Maria-Lane , London. This firm and its successors published several works of Mitford 's works during her lifetime. In this form, the firm was active between and and published Mitford 's Julian as well as Our Village, volume one , Our Village, volume two , and Our Village, volume three.

Publisher of a facsimile reprint of Mitford 's Our Village [volume one, second edition]. He was baptized at Totnes, Devon, on January 1, and so was likely born in late He died in April at East Budleigh, Devon. William Dacres Adams inherited the estate of Bowden in the parish of Ashprington, near Totnes in Devon, from his father, who had purchased it from the Trist family about ; William Dacres Adams allowed George and his family to live there after his own marriage.

Bowden House, the Georgian mansion located on the former estate, is currently a grade I listed building. John Leycester Adolphus Adolphus John Leycester legal literary Aeschylus BC Eleusis, Greece BC Gela, Sicily playwright Ancient writer of tragedies, the earliest of the three celebrated progenitors of classical tragedy, including Euripides and Sophocles against both of whom he successfully competed for prize-winning plays in ancient Greece. His plays are some of the earliest existing examples of tragedy, though the genre likely predates him. Aeschylus, like Euripides and Sophocles, served in military roles to fight the Persians. Author of the historical tragedy, Persians BC , as well as the Oresteia BC , the only complete trilogy cycle of plays from ancient Greece , Aeschylus was credited by the librarians at Alexandria with writing Prometheus Bound , though the authorship is now disputed.

Ainsworth William Harrison Manchester, England Reigate, Surrey, England literary novelist journalist Prolific novelist and journalist in the early nineteenth century. In addition to his military victories, including the defeat of the Danes at the Battle of Edington, Alfred is known as a wise governmental administrator and proponent of learning and literacy. Source: ODNB Anacreon Teos, Ionia literary poet Ancient Greek lyric poet, later considered one of nine canonical poets; known for composing bacchanalian and amatory lyrics and hymns. Anne Servant in the Mitford household. Annesley Francis Reading educator politian First Master of Downing College , Cambridge University from until his death in , Annesley also served as Member of Parliament for the borough of Reading between He gave the speech beginning, "Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears Ludovico Arisoto Reggio Emilia, Italy Ferrara, Italy literary poet playwright courtier diplomat Italian poet, courtier, and diplomat; Author of the epic Orlando Furioso , written in ottava rima.

During her lifetime she published Sense and Sensibility , Pride and Prejudice , Mansfield Park , and Emma , all anonymously. Northanger Abbey , the first written of her novels composed in was published posthumously in along with her last finished novel, Persuasion. Mitford claims in a letter to Sir William Elford of 3 April that she has recently discovered Austen "is my countrywoman," , that is, a neighbor. She and Elford evidently knew the identity of Austen as the author long before the information was public knowledge, and she claims in the April 3 letter that her mother remembered Jane Austen in her youth as "the prettiest, silliest, most affected, husband-hunting butterfly she ever remembers" , but that Jane was by the s extremely quiet, which impressed Mitford: "till Pride and Prejudice showed what a precious gem was hidden in that unbending case, she was no more regarded in society than a poker or a fire-screen, or any other thin upright piece of wood or iron that fills its corner in peace and quietness.

The case is very different now; she is still a poker--but a poker of whom every one is afraid. It must be confessed that this silent observation from such an observer is rather formidable. Most writers are good-humoured chatterers--neither very wise nor very wittybut nine times out of ten at least in the few that I have known unaffected and pleasant, and quite removing by their conversation any awe that may have been excited by their works.

But a wit, a delineator of character, who does not talk, is terrific indeed! Robert Baldwin printer bookseller publisher Printer of the London Magazine ; London printer and bookseller. Also published under R. See Coles Specialized in "low" comic roles. Manager of Drury Lane from to ODNB Mrs. Bayley Mrs. Bayley, spouse of Peter Bayley. After his sudden death in , she arranged to publish posthumously his poems and to have performed and published his tragedy Orestes in Argos. Exhibited at the Royal Academy between and Friend and patron to Wordsworth, Haydon, and Thomas Hearne.

He specialized in smaller scale full-length portraits. John Bellamy translator Author of The Holy Bible newly translated from the original Hebrew: with notes critical and explanatory , published for the author by subscription in Advocate of Catholic emancipation and parliament reform. Bennet gave up his parliament seat in amid a cloud of scandal after a threat of prosecution for importuning a young male servant at Spa in August ODNB. He had been travelling in Italy after the deaths of a son and daughter from consumption in , and remained in exile with his wife until his death in Retired from acting in Said to have inaugurated a new, more sympathetic and serious style of playing Caliban , which had previously been considered a comic wild man character.

Bennoch Francis Esq. Also friend and patron of Haydon and Hawthorne. She reportedly accompanied her new husband on his first crusade but they returned separately. Berengaria remained in Europe and later attempted to raise money for his return after he was captured. Became proverbial for wifely faithfulness. His works are signed both as Berghem and Berchem. Mitford employs "Berghem. Thomas Bewick Thomas Bewick Mickley, Northumberland, England Gateshead, Durham, England artist wood engraver naturalist literary Bewick is one of the most important practitioners of wood engraving as it is now practiced.

This technique allows for the creation of finer and more detailed engraved images and also results in an engraving block that is more durable than those carved with the grain. Bewick was not a member of the family of Thomas Bewick the illustrator-engraver. Commissioned first in the Northumberland Fusiliers , then in the marines. Bickerstaff went into exile from England due to published reports from a blackmailing soldier who accused him of a sodomous encounter.

He is known to have travelled in France , Austria , and Italy under assumed names, but his finale whereabouts are unknown. The ODNB cites records that he was receiving army half pay in , and perhaps died shortly thereafter. Baptismal and family data as recorded by Needham in his Mitford notes, on a list of Shinfield records. In an attempt to establish the original for the story character, Needham also, on the same sheet of paper, lists a "Hannah Clark" who married a "William Bint" on April 16, A Bint family blog records that their Hannah Bint became a schoolmistress.

Source: The Bint Family of Shinfield Fiction and Mary Russell Mitford , Morris Birkbeck Settle, England Bonpas Creek, Illinois, USA literary politician agricultural experimenter pioneer Quaker, abolitionist, radical reformer in politics and religion, and an agricultural experimenter in the cross-breeding of Merino sheep, Birkbeck emigrated to America in in order to establish a utopian community in the Illinois territory. Still attempts were occasionally made to establish additional places of entertainment. In , John Palmer, the actor famous as the original Joseph Surface, laid the first stone of a new theatre, to be called the East London, or Royalty, in the neighbourhood of the old Goodman's Fields Theatre, which had been many years abandoned of the actors and converted into a goods warehouse.

The building was completed in The opening representation was announced; when the proprietors of the patent theatres gave warning that any infringement of their privileges would be followed by the prosecution of Mr. Palmer and his company. The performances took place, nevertheless, but they were stated to be for the benefit of the London Hospital, and not, therefore, for "hire, gain, or reward;" so the actors avoided risk of commitment as rogues and vagabonds. But necessarily the enterprise ended in disaster. Palmer, his friends alleged, lost his whole fortune; it was shrewdly suspected, however, that he had, in truth, no fortune to lose.

In any case he speedily retired from the new theatre. It was open for brief seasons with such exhibitions of music, dancing, and pantomime, as were held to be unaffected by the Act, and permissible under the license of the local magistrates. From time to time, however, the relentless patentees took proceedings against the actors. Delpini, the clown, was even committed to prison for exclaiming "Roast Beef!

By uttering words without the accompaniment of music he had, it appeared, constituted himself an actor of a stage play. Some five-and-twenty years later, Elliston was now memorialising the king, now petitioning the House of Commons and the Privy Council, in reference to the opening of an additional theatre. He had been in treaty for the Pantheon, in Oxford Street, and urged that "the intellectual community would be benefited by an extension of license for the regular drama. The king would not "notice any representation connected with the establishment of another theatre.

Gradually, however, it became necessary for the authorities to recognise the fact that the public really did require more amusements of a theatrical kind than the privileged theatres could furnish. But the regular drama, it was held, must still be protected: performed only on the patent boards. So now "burletta licenses" were issued, under cover of which melodramas were presented, with entertainments of music and dancing, spectacle and pantomime.

In , the Lyceum or English Opera House, which for some years before had been licensed for music and dancing, was licensed for "musical dramatic entertainments and ballets of action. In the Olympic was licensed for similar performances and for horsemanship; but it was for a while closed again by the Chamberlain's order, upon Elliston's attempt to call the theatre Little Drury Lane, and to represent upon its stage something more like the "regular drama" than had been previously essayed at a minor house.

James's in , and for the Strand in And, in despite of the authorities, theatres had been established on the Surrey side of the Thames; but, in truth, for the accommodation of the dwellers on the Middlesex shore. Under the Licensing Act, while the Chamberlain was constituted licenser of all new plays throughout Great Britain, his power to grant licenses for theatrical entertainments was confined within the city and liberties of Westminster, and wherever the sovereign might reside.

There seemed, indeed, to be no law in existence under which they could be licensed. They affected to be open under a magistrate's license for "music, dancing, and public entertainments. Lambeth was thus neutral ground, over which neither the Lord Chamberlain nor the country justices had any real authority, with this difficulty about the case--performances that could not be licensed could not be legalised. The law continued in this unsatisfactory state till the passing, in , of the Act for Regulating Theatres. This deprived the patent theatres of their monopoly of the "regular drama," in that it extended the Lord Chamberlain's power to grant licenses for the performance of stage plays to all theatres within the parliamentary boundaries of the City of London and Westminster, and of the Boroughs of Finsbury and Marylebone, the Tower Hamlets, Lambeth, and Southwark, and also "within those places where Her Majesty, her heirs and successors, shall, in their royal persons, occasionally reside;" it being fully understood that all the theatres then existing in London would receive forthwith the Chamberlain's license "to give stage plays in the fullest sense of the word;" to be taken to include, according to the terms of the Act, "every tragedy, comedy, farce, opera, burletta, interlude, melodrama, pantomime, or other entertainment of the stage, or any part thereof.

Thus, at last, more than a century after the passing of the Licensing Act, certain of its more mischievous restrictions were in effect repealed. A measure of free trade in theatres was established. The Lord Chamberlain was still to be "the lawful monarch of the stage," but in the future his rule was to be more constitutional, less absolute than it had been.

The public were no longer to be confined to Drury Lane and Covent Garden in the winter, and the Haymarket in the summer. Actors were enabled, managers and public consenting, to personate Hamlet or Macbeth, or other heroes of the poetic stage, at Lambeth, Clerkenwell, or Shoreditch, anywhere indeed, without risk of committal to gaol. It was no longer necessary to call a play a "burletta," or to touch a note upon the piano, now and then, in the course of a performance, so as to justify its claim to be a musical entertainment; all subterfuges of this kind ceased.

It was with considerable reluctance, however, that the Chamberlain, in his character of Licenser of Playhouses, divested himself of the paternal authority he had so long exercised. He still clung to the notion that he was a far better judge of the requirements and desires of playgoers than they could possibly be themselves. He was strongly of opinion that the number of theatres was "sufficient for the theatrical wants of the metropolis.

Systematically he hindered all enterprise in the direction of new theatres. It was always doubtful whether his license would be granted, even after a new building had been completed. He decided that he must be guided by his own views of "the interests of the public. The Act of contained no special provisions on the subject. But he insisted that all applicants for the licensing of new theatres should be armed with petitions in favour of the proposal, signed by many of the inhabitants in the immediate vicinity of the projected building; he 'required the Police Commissioners to verify the truth of these petitions, and to report whether inconvenience was likely to result in the way of interruption of traffic, or otherwise, from the establishment of a new theatre.

Under these conditions it is not surprising that for nearly a quarter of a century there was no addition made to the list of London theatres. But time moves on, and even Chamberlains have to move with it. Of late years there has been no difficulty in regard to the licensing of new theatres, and the metropolis has been the richer by many well-conducted houses of dramatic entertainment. The Lord Chamberlain holds office only so long as the political party to which he is attached remains in power. He comes in and goes out with the ministry. Any peculiar fitness for the appointment is not required of him; it is simply a reward for his political services. Of course different Chamberlains have entertained different opinions of the duties to be performed in regard to the theatres; and, in such wise, much embarrassment has arisen.

The Chamberlain's office is supported by a grant from the Civil List, which is settled upon the accession of the sovereign. In addition, fees are received for the licensing of theatres, and for the examination of plays. The Examiner of Plays has long been recognised as a more permanent functionary than the Lord Chamberlain, although it would seem the precise nature of his appointment has never been clearly understood. Donne, the late Examiner, in his evidence before the Parliamentary Committee of , "that it is an appointment that expires with the sovereign at least, I infer so from the evidence which Mr.

Colman gave in the year , but I cannot say that from my own knowledge: I believe it to be an appointment for life. There is no instance on record, however, of the displacement of an Examiner, or of the cancelling by one Chamberlain of the appointment made by his predecessor. Power of this kind, however, would seem to be vested in the Chamberlain for the time being. Colman's evidence, it may be noted, is of no present worth. He was appointed as a consequence of the old Licensing Act, repealed in Strange to say, it was this Odell who had first opened a theatre in Goodman's Fields, which, upon the complaint of the civic authorities, who believed the drama to be a source of danger to the London apprentices of the period, he had been compelled forthwith to close.

He applied to George II, for a royal license, but met with a peremptory refusal. In he sold his property to one Giffard, who rebuilt the theatre, and, dispensing with official permission, performed stage plays between the intervals of a concert, until producing Garrick, and obtaining extraordinary success by that measure, he roused the jealousy of the authorities, and was compelled to forego his undertaking. The Licenser's power of prohibition was exercised very shortly after his appointment, in the case of two tragedies: "Gustavus Vasa," by Henry Brooke, and "Edward and Eleonora," by James Thomson. Political allusions of an offensive kind were supposed to lurk somewhere in these works. In , with the permission of the Chamberlain, the play was produced at Covent Garden, in order that Master Betty, the Young Roscius, might personate the hero.

But the youthful actor failed in the part, and the tragedy, being found rather dull, was represented but once. At this time Mr. Brooke had been dead some years. In a preface to his play he had vouched for its purity, and denounced the conduct of the Licenser, as opposed to the intention of the Legislature, Dr. Johnson assisting his cause by the publication of an ironical pamphlet--"A Vindication of the Licenser from the malicious and scandalous aspersions of Mr. Yet some few years since, it may be noted, the late Charles Kingsley made endeavours, more strenuous than successful, to obtain applause for Brooke's novel, "The Fool of Quality;" but although a new and handsome edition of this work was published, it was received with some apathy by the romance-reading public.

The author of "The Seasons" hardly seems a writer likely to give offence designedly to a Chamberlain. But Thomson was a sort of Poet Laureate to Frederick, Prince of Wales, then carrying on fierce opposition to the court of his father, and the play of "Edward and Eleonora"--a dramatic setting of the old legend of Queen Eleanor sucking the poison from her husband's arm--certainly contained passages applicable to the differences existing between the king and his heir-apparent. In the first scene, one of the characters demands Has not the royal heir a juster claim To share his father's inmost heart and counsels, Than aliens to his interest, those who make A property, a market of his honour? O my deluded father! In , however, the play was produced at Covent Garden.

George III. At this time and long afterwards, the Licenser regarded it as his chief duty to protect the court against all possibility of attack from the stage. With the morality of plays he did not meddle much; but he still clung to the old superstition that the British drama had only a right to exist as the pastime of royalty; plays and players were still to be subservient to the pleasure of the sovereign. The British public, who, after all, really supported the stage, he declined to consider in the matter; conceding, however, that they were at liberty to be amused at the theatre, provided they could achieve that end in strict accordance with the prescription of the court and its Chamberlain.

In George III. In a play, called "The Wanderer," adapted from Kotzebue, was forbidden at Covent Garden, in that it dealt with the adventures of Prince Charles Edward, the Pretender. Even after the accession of Queen Victoria, a license was refused to an English version of Victor Hugo's "Ruy Blas," lest playgoers should perceive in it allusions to the matrimonial choice her Majesty was then about to make. The Licenser's keenness in scenting a political allusion oftentimes, indeed, entailed upon him much and richly-merited ridicule. The production, some fifty years ago, of a tragedy called "Alasco" furnishes a notable instance of the absurdity of his conduct in this respect.

Shee, a harmless gentleman enough, if at that time a less fully-developed courtier than he appeared when, as Sir Martin Archer Shee, he occupied the presidential chair of the Royal Academy. Possibly some suspicion attached to the dramatist by reason of his being an Irishman and a Roman Catholic. In any case, the Licenser found much to object to in "Alasco. We may note a few of the lines expunged by the Licenser:. Tyrants, proud lord, are never safe, nor should be; The ground is mined beneath them as they tread; Haunted by plots, cabals, conspiracies, Their lives are long convulsions, and they shake, Surrounded by their guards and garrisons! It is difficult now to discover what offence was contained in these lines, and many more such as these, which were also denounced by the Licenser.

Shee expostulated--for he was not a meek sort of man by any means, and he knew the advantages of a stir to one aiming at publicity--appealed from the subordinate to the superior, from the Examiner to the Chamberlain, then the Duke of Montrose, and wrote to the newspapers; but all in vain. The tragedy could not be performed. That the stage lost much it would be rash to assert. However, that Shee was furnished with a legitimate grievance was generally agreed, although in "Blackwood's Magazine," then very intense in its Toryism, it was hinted that the dramatist, his religion and his nationality being considered, might be in league with the author of "Captain Rock," and engaged in seditious designs against the peace and Protestantism of Ireland!

Some five years later, it may be noted, "Alasco" was played at the Surrey Theatre, without the slightest regard for the opinion of the Examiner of Plays, or with any change in the passages he had ordered to be expunged. Westminster was not then very well informed as to what happened in Lambeth, and probably it was not generally known that "Alasco," with all its supposed seditious utterances unsilenced, could be witnessed upon the Surrey stage.

Nor is there any record that anybody was at all the worse, or the treasury of the theatre any the better, for the representation of the forbidden tragedy. The Examiner of Plays at this time was George Colman the younger, who was appointed to the office, less on account of the distinction he enjoyed as a dramatist, than because he was a favourite and a sort of boon companion of George IV.

Colman had succeeded a Mr. Larpent, who had filled the post for some twenty years, and who, notwithstanding that, as a strict Methodist, he scarcely seemed a very fit person to pronounce judgment upon stage plays, had exercised the powers entrusted to him with moderation. Colman, however, proved a very tyrant--a consummate Jack-in-office. As a gentleman of rather unbridled habits of life, and the author of "Broad Grins" and other works certainly paying small heed to the respectabilities, it had been hoped that he would deal leniently with his brother playwrights.

But he carried to fanatic extravagance his devotion to the purity of the stage. Warned by earlier example, few dramas which could possibly be considered of a political complexion were now submitted for examination. Still the diction of the stage demanded a measure of liberty. But Mr. Colman would not allow a lover to describe his mistress as "an angel. The words "heaven" and "hell" he uniformly expunged.

Oaths and all violent expletives were strictly prohibited. Now it was rather an imprecatory age. Men swore in those days, not meaning much harm, or particularly conscious of what they were doing, but as a matter of bad habit, in pursuance of a custom certainly odious enough, but which they had not originated, and could hardly be expected immediately to overcome. In this way malediction formed part of the manners of the time. How could these be depicted upon the stage in the face of Mr.

Colman's new ordinance? There was great consternation among actors and authors. Plays came back from the Examiner's office so slashed with red ink that they seemed to be bleeding from numerous wounds; line after line had been prohibited; and by Colman of all people! Critics amused themselves by searching through his own dramatic writings, and cataloguing the bad language they contained.

The list was very formidable. There were comminations and anathemas in almost every scene. The matter was pointed out to him, but he treated it with indifference. He was a writer of plays then; but now he was Examiner of Plays. His point of view was changed, that was all. It was no fault of his if there had been neglect of duty on the part of previous examiners.

Arnold, the proprietor and manager of the Lyceum Theatre, expostulated with him on the subject. In a play by John Banim, one of the authors of the "Tales of the O'Hara Family," Colman had forbidden certain lines to be chanted by monks and nuns in a scene of a foreign cathedral. It was too profane. What about the singing of "God save the King" upon the stage? That had been sanctioned by custom, Colman maintained; but he could not regard it as a precedent. Was he prepared to mutilate Portia's great speech in the "Merchant of Venice? He admitted, however, that he did not trouble himself to ascertain whether his excisions were carried into effect when the plays came to be represented. When I have marked my objections the play is licensed, subject to the omission of the passages objected to; beyond this I have nothing to do, or an examiner would become a spy as well as a censor on the theatre.

As evidence of Colman's lack of conscientiousness in this matter, a letter he wrote to Mr. Frederick Yates, in , may be cited. A dramatic author, the friend both of Colman and Yates, had bitterly complained of the retrenchments made by the Examiner in a certain play, or, to follow Colman's own words, had stated "that his comedy would be sure to be damned by the public, owing to the removal of some devilish good jokes by the Examiner. Only, in that case, of what good was the Examiner, regarded as a public servant? It was questioned at the time whether the Chamberlain, by his deputy, was not exercising more authority than he was really clothed with, under virtue of the Licensing Act.

He was entitled to prohibit the performance of any play; but could he make terms with the managers, and cut and carve their manuscripts, forcing upon them his capricious alterations? Further, it was asked by what right he delegated his power to another? The Act made no mention of his deputy or of such an officer as an Examiner of Plays. And then, as to the question of fees. What right had he to exact fees? There was no mention of fees in the Act. But it was urged that this was simply to secure expedition in the examination of their plays, which they were bound to submit to the Chamberlain fourteen days at least before representation, and not in pursuance of any legal enactment. The Examiner of Plays received a salary from the Chamberlain for the labour he performed; why should he levy a tax upon managers and authors, and so be paid twice over for the same work?

Now, on the subject of fees Colman was certainly most rapacious. He spared no effort to increase, in this way, the emoluments of his office. Occasional addresses, prologues, and epilogues, were all rated as distinct stage plays, and the customary fees insisted upon. When the French plays were performed in London, in , Colman insisted that a fee must be paid for every vaudeville or other light piece of that class produced. Colman even succeeded in rating as a stage play, an astronomical lecture, delivered at the Lyceum.

The "At Homes" of Mathews were of course taxed, a "slight sketch and title" being submitted to the Examiner, the actor professing to speak without any precise text, but simply from "heads and hints before him to refer to should his memory falter. After great discussion it was ultimately decided that the Bible did not need the license of the Lord Chamberlain. Colman died in , and was succeeded as Examiner of Plays by Mr. Charles Kemble, who, strange to say, while holding that appointment returned to the stage for a short season and performed certain of his most celebrated characters. He resigned the office in , and his son John Mitchell Kemble then held it in his stead. On the death of John Mitchell Kemble, in , Mr. William Bodham Donne, the late Examiner, received the appointment.

Donne, however, had in truth performed the duties of the office as the deputy of the Chamberlain's deputy since the year Further, the Examiner receives fees for every play examined. For every song sung in a theatre a fee of 5s. As Mr. Donne explained to the committee, he had examined between and about plays. Further, it was made lawful for him, whenever he should be of opinion that it was fitting for the preservation of good manners, decorum, or of the public peace so to do, to forbid the performance of any stage play, or any act, scene or part thereof, or any prologue or epilogue or any part thereof, anywhere in Great Britain or in any such theatre as he should specify, and either absolutely or for such time as he should think fit.

It was enacted, moreover, that the term "stage play" should be taken to include "every tragedy, comedy, farce, opera, burletta, interlude, melodrama, pantomime, or other entertainment of the stage. The Act provides for no appeal against the decision of the Chamberlain. His government was to be quite absolute. If he chose to prohibit the performance of Shakespeare's plays, for instance, no one could question his right to take that strong measure; only another Act of Parliament could, under such circumstances, restore Shakespeare, to the stage. Of the Examiner of Plays the Act made no mention: that office continued to be the creation simply of the Lord Chamberlain, and without any sort of legal status.

The old Licensing Act of was absolutely repealed; yet, unaccountably enough, Mr. The intensity of George Colman's regard for "good manners and decorum" has no doubt furnished a precedent to later Examiners. For some time little effort was made again to apply the stage to the purposes of political satire. Buckstone informed the Parliamentary Committee that an attempt made about , to represent the House of Commons upon the stage of the Adelphi--Mr. Buckstone was to have personated the Lord John Russell of that date--had been promptly forbidden; and the late Mr. Shirley Brooks stated that a project of dramatising Mr.

Disraeli's novel of "Coningsby" had also, in regard to its political bearing, been interdicted by the Chamberlain. Few other essays in this direction appear worth noting, until we come to a few seasons back, when certain members of the administration were caricatured upon the stage of the Court Theatre, after a fashion that speedily brought down the rebuke of the Chamberlain, and the exhibition was prohibited within his jurisdiction.

But the question of "good manners and decorum" has induced much controversy. For where, indeed, is discoverable an acceptable standard of "good manners and decorum"? In such matters there is always growth and change of opinion. Sir Walter Scott makes mention of an elderly lady, who, reading over again certain books she had deemed in her youth to be of a most harmless kind, was shocked at their exceeding grossness. She had unconsciously moved on with the civilising and refining influences of her time. And the question of morality in relation to the drama is confessedly very difficult to deal with. Where there is an obvious intention, or a very strong suspicion of an intention to make wrong appear right or right appear wrong, those are the cases in which I interfere, or those in which there is any open scandal, or any inducement to do wrong is offered; but stage morality is--the morality of the stage, and generally, quite as good as the morality of the literature of fiction.

Alexandre Dumas fils, he has sanctioned its performance as the opera "La Traviata. Donne, "that if there is a musical version of a piece it makes a difference, for the story is then subsidiary to the music and singing. Madame Ristori was not allowed to appear in the tragedy of "Myrrha," and the dramas which French companies of players visiting this country from time to time have designed to produce, have been severely dealt with, the Examiner forgetting, apparently, that such works should rather be judged by a foreign than a native standard of "good manners and decorum.

Sarah Bernhardt as the representative of the leading character. The Chamberlain has also held it to be a part of his duty to interfere in regard to certain of the costumes of the theatre, when these seemed to be more scanty than seemliness required, and from time to time he has addressed expostulations to the managers upon the subject. It must not be concluded, however, that from his action in the matter, much change or amendment has ensued.

The stage may be no better for the absence of such an officer, but it does not seem to be any the worse. In , the late Lord Lytton then Mr. Bulwer , addressing the House of Commons on the laws affecting dramatic literature, said of the authority vested in the Lord Chamberlain: "I am at a loss to know what advantages we have gained by the grant of this almost unconstitutional power. Certainly, with regard to a censor, a censor upon plays seems to me as idle and unnecessary as a censor upon books The public taste, backed by the vigilant admonition of the public press, may, perhaps, be more safely trusted for the preservation of theatrical decorum, than any ignorant and bungling censor who however well the office may be now fulfilled might be appointed hereafter; who, while he might strain at gnats and cavil at straws, would be without any other real power than that of preventing men of genius from submitting to the caprice of his opinions.

Are there, nowadays, any collectors of playbills? In the catalogues of secondhand booksellers are occasionally to be found such entries as: "Playbills of the Theatre Royal, Bath, to ;" or "Hull Theatre Royal--various bills of performances between and ;" or "Covent Garden Theatre--variety of old bills of the last century pasted in a volume;" yet these evidences of the care and diligence of past collectors would not seem to obtain much appreciation in the present. The old treasures can generally be purchased at a very moderate outlay. Still, if scarceness is an element of value, these things should be precious. It is in the nature of such ephemera of the printing-press to live their short hour, and disappear with exceeding suddenness.

They may be originally issued in hundreds or even in thousands; but once gone they are gone for ever. Relative to such matters there is an energy of destruction that keeps pace with the industry of production. The demands of "waste" must be met: fires must be lighted. So away go the loose papers, sheets and pamphlets of the minute. They have served their turn, and there is an end of them.

Hence the difficulty of obtaining, when needed, a copy of a newspaper of old date, or the guide-book or programme of a departed entertainment, or the catalogue of a past auction of books or pictures. It has been noted that, notwithstanding the enormous circulation it enjoyed, the catalogue of our Great Exhibition of a score of years ago is already a somewhat rare volume. Complete sets of the catalogues of the Royal Academy's century of exhibitions are possessed by very few. And of playbills of the English stage from the Restoration down to the present time, although the British Museum can certainly boast a rich collection, yet this is disfigured here and there by gaps and deficiencies which cannot now possibly be supplied.

The playbill is an ancient thing. Payne Collier states that the practice of printing information as to the time, place, and nature of the performances to be presented by the players was certainly common prior to the year John Northbrooke, in his treatise against theatrical performers, published about , says: "They used to set up their bills upon posts some certain days before, to admonish people to make resort to their theatres.

Taylor, the water-poet, in his "Wit and Mirth," records the story of Field the actor's riding rapidly up Fleet Street, and being stopped by a gentleman with an inquiry as to the play that was to be played that night. Field, "being angry to be stayed upon so frivolous a demand, answered, that he might see what play was to be played upon every post. It is strange to find that the right of printing playbills was originally monopolised by the Stationers' Company.

At a later period, however, the privilege was assumed and exercised by the Crown. In , James I. But it had been usual, apparently, with the title of the drama, to supply the name of its author, and its description as a tragedy or comedy. Shirley, in the prologue to his "Cardinal," apologises for calling it only a "play" in the bill:. Think what you please, we call it but a "play:" Whether the comic muse, or lady's love, Romance or direful tragedy it prove, The bill determines not.

From a later passage in the same prologue Mr. Collier judges that the titles of tragedies were usually printed, for the sake of distinction, in red ink:. But this may be a reference to the colour of a cardinal's robes. There is probably no playbill extant of an earlier date than About this time, in the case of a new play, it was usual to state in the bill that it had been "never acted before. In the earliest days of the stage, before the invention of printing, the announcement that theatrical performances were about to be exhibited was made by sound of trumpet, much after the manner of modern strollers and showmen at fairs and street-corners.

Indeed, long after playbills had become common, this musical advertisement was still requisite for the due information of the unlettered patrons of the stage. In certain towns the musicians were long looked upon as the indispensable heralds of the actors. Tate Wilkinson, writing in , records that a custom obtained at Norwich, "and if abolished it has not been many years," of proclaiming in every street with drum and trumpet the performances to be presented at the theatre in the evening.

A like practice also prevailed at Grantham. To the Lincolnshire company of players, however, this musical preface to their efforts seemed objectionable and derogatory, and they determined, on one of their visits to the town, to dispense with the old-established sounds. But the reform resulted in empty benches. Thereupon the "revered, well-remembered, and beloved Marquis of Granby" sent for the manager of the troop and thus addressed him: "Mr. Manager, I like a play; I like a player; and I shall be glad to serve you. But, my good friend, why are you all so offended at and averse to the noble sound of a drum?

I like it, and all the inhabitants like it. Put my name on your playbill, provided you drum, but not otherwise. Try the effect on to-morrow night; if then you are as thinly attended as you have lately been, shut up your playhouse at once; but if it succeeds, drum away! The musical prelude was again heard in the streets of Grantham, and crowded houses were obtained. The company enjoyed a prosperous season, and left the town in great credit. An early instance of the explanatory address, signed by the dramatist or manager, which so frequently accompanies the modern playbill, is to be found in the fly-sheet issued by Dryden in The poet thought it expedient in this way to inform the audience that his tragedy of "The Indian Emperor" was to be regarded as a sequel to a former work, "The Indian Queen," which he had written in conjunction with his brother-in-law, Sir Robert Howard.

The handbill excited some amusement, by reason of its novelty, for in itself it was but a simple and useful intimation. In ridicule of this proceeding, Bayes, the hero of the Duke of Buckingham's burlesque, "The Rehearsal," is made to say: "I have printed above a hundred sheets of paper to insinuate the plot into the boxes. Chetwood, who had been twenty years prompter at Drury Lane, and in published a "History of the Stage," describes a difficulty that had arisen in regard to printing the playbills. Of old the list of characters had been set forth according to the books of the plays, without regard to the merits of the performers. But latterly, I can assure my readers, I have found it a difficult task to please some ladies as well as gentlemen, because I could not find letters large enough to please them; and some were so fond of elbow room that they would have shoved everybody out but themselves, as if one person was to do all and have the merit of all, like generals of an army.

When the present manager of Drury Lane first came on the stage, a new set of types, two inches long, were cast on purpose to do honour to his extraordinary merit. Macklin made it an express charge against his manager, Sheridan, the actor, that he was accustomed to print his own name in larger type than was permitted the other performers. Kean threatened to throw up his engagement at Drury Lane on account of his name having been printed in capitals of a smaller size than usual. His engagement of contained a condition, "and also that his name shall be continued in the bills of performance in the same manner as it is at present," viz.

On the other hand, Dowton, the comedian, greatly objected to having his name thus particularised, and expostulated with Elliston, his manager, on the subject. This cursed quackery. These big letters. There is a want of respectability about it, or rather a notoriety, which gives one the feeling of an absconded felon, against whom a hue-and-cry is made public. Or if there be really any advantage in it, why should I, or any single individual, take it over the rest of our brethren? But it has a nasty disreputable look, and I have fancied the whole day the finger of the town pointed at me, as much as to say, 'That is he!

Now for the reward! I have none. Macready, under date of 28th September, , enters in his journal: "Spoke to Webster on the subject of next year's engagement. He said that he understood I had said that while I was comfortable at the Haymarket I would stay. O'Keeffe relates that once when an itinerant showman brought over to Dublin a trained monkey of great acquirements, Mossop engaged the animal at a large salary to appear for a limited number of nights at his theatre. Mossop's name in the playbill was always in a type nearly two inches long, the rest of the performers' names being in very small letters.

Under John Kemble's management, "for his greater ease and the quiet of the theatre," letters of unreasonable size were abandoned, and the playbills were printed after an amended and more modest pattern. With the rise and growth of the press came the expediency of advertising the performances of the theatres in the columns of the newspapers. To the modern manager advertisements are a very formidable expense. The methods he is compelled to resort to in order to bring his plays and players well under the notice of the public, involve a serious charge upon his receipts.

But of old the case was precisely the reverse. The theatres were strong, the newspapers were weak. So far from the manager paying money for the insertion of his advertisements in the journals, he absolutely received profits on this account. The press then suffered under severe restrictions, and was most jealously regarded by the governing powers; leading articles were as yet unknown; the printing of parliamentary debates was strictly prohibited; foreign intelligence was scarcely obtainable; of home news there was little stirring that could with safety be promulgated.

So that the proceedings of the theatres became of real importance to the newspaper proprietor, and it was worth his while to pay considerable sums for early information in this respect. Moreover, in those days, not merely by reason of its own merits, but because of the absence of competing attractions and other sources of entertainment, the stage was much more than at present an object of general regard.

Even the shopkeepers then paid for the privilege of exhibiting bills in their windows, whereas now they require to be rewarded for all exertions of this kind, by, at any rate, free admissions to the entertainments advertised, if not by a specific payment of money. The exact date when the managers began to pay instead of receive on the score of their advertisements, is hardly to be ascertained.

The managers may have paid certain journals for the regular insertion of advertisements, and received payment from less favoured or less influential newspapers for theatrical news or information. One of Charles Lamb's most pleasant papers arose from "the casual sight of an old playbill which I picked up the other day; I know not by what chance it was preserved so long. Lamb's delight in the stage needs not to be again referred to. Mention of Old Drury Lane and its burning bring us naturally to the admirable "story of the flying playbill," contained in the parody of Crabbe, perhaps the most perfect specimen in that unique collection of parodies, "Rejected Addresses. Perchance while pit and gallery cry "Hats off!

If these lines save one playbill only from the fate I have recorded, I shall not deem my labour ill employed. Modern playbills may be described as of two classes, indoor and out-of-door. The latter are known also as "posters," and may thus manifest their connection with the early method of "setting up playbills upon posts. Of late years the vendors of playbills, who were wont urgently to pursue every vehicle that seemed to them bound to the theatre, in the hope of disposing of their wares, have greatly diminished in numbers, if they have not wholly disappeared.

Many managers have forbidden altogether the sale of bills outside the doors of their establishments. The indoor programmes are again divided into two kinds. To the lower-priced portions of the house an inferior bill is devoted; a folio sheet of thin paper, heavily laden and strongly odorous with printers' ink. Visitors to the more expensive seats are now supplied with a scented bill of octavo size, which is generally, in addition, the means of advertising the goods and inventions of an individual perfumer. Attempts to follow Parisian example, and to make the playbill at once a vehicle for general advertisements and a source of amusing information upon theatrical subjects, have been ventured here occasionally, but without decided success.

The playgoer's openness to receive impressions or information of any kind by way of employment during the intervals of representation, has not been unperceived by the advertisers, however, and now and then, as a result, a monstrosity called an "advertising curtain" has disfigured the stage. Some new development of the playbill in this direction may be in store for us in the future. The difficulty lies, perhaps, in the gilding of the pill.

Advertisements by themselves are not very attractive reading, and a mixed audience cannot safely be credited with a ruling appetite merely for dramatic intelligence. It is rather the public than the player that strolls nowadays. The theatre is stationary--the audience peripatetic. The wheels have been taken off the cart of Thespis. Hamlet's line, "Then came each actor on his ass," or the stage direction in the old "Taming of the Shrew" , "Enter two players with packs on their backs," no longer describes accurately the travelling habits of the histrionic profession. But of old the country folk had the drama brought as it were to their doors, and just as they purchased their lawn and cambric, ribbons and gloves, and other raiment and bravery of the wandering pedlar--the Autolycus of the period--so all their playhouse learning and experience they acquired from the itinerant actors.

These were rarely the leading performers of the established London companies, however, unless it so happened that the capital was suffering from a visitation of the plague. As a rule, it was only the inferior actors who quitted town, and as Dekker contemptuously says, "travelled upon the hard hoof from village to village for cheese and buttermilk. The suppression of the theatres by the Puritans reduced all the players to the condition of strollers of the lowest class.

Legally their occupation was gone altogether. Stringent measures were taken to abolish stage-plays and interludes, and by an Act passed in , all actors of plays for the time to come were declared rogues within the meaning of the Act of Elizabeth, and upon conviction were to be publicly whipped for the first offence, and for the second to be deemed incorrigible rogues, and dealt with accordingly; all stage galleries, seats, and boxes were to be pulled down by warrant of two justices of the peace; all money collected from the spectators was to be appropriated to the poor of the parish; and all spectators of plays, for every offence, fined five shillings.

Assuredly these were very hard times for players, playhouses, and playgoers. Still the theatre was hard to kill. In , a provost-marshal was nominated to stimulate the vigilance and activity of the lord mayor, justices, and sheriffs, and among other duties, "to seize all ballad-singers and sellers of malignant pamphlets, and to send them to the several militias, and to suppress stage-plays. A few players met furtively, assembled a select audience, and gave a clandestine performance, more or less complete, in some obscure quarter. Secret Royalists and but half-hearted Puritans abounded, and these did not scruple to abet a breach of the law, and to be entertained now and then in the old time-honoured way. With the Restoration, however, Thespis enjoyed his own again, and sock and buskin became once more lawful articles of apparel.

Charles II. The London theatres reopened under royal patronage, and in the provinces the stroller was abroad. He had his enemies, no doubt. Prejudice is long-lived, of robust constitution. Puritanism had struck deep root in the land, and though the triumphant Cavaliers might hew its branches, strip off its foliage, and hack at its trunk, they could by no means extirpate it altogether. Religious zealotry, strenuous and stubborn, however narrow, had fostered, and parliamentary enactments had warranted, hostility of the most uncompromising kind to the player and his profession.

To many he was still, his new liberty and privileges notwithstanding, but "a son of Belial"--ever of near kin to the rogue and the vagabond, with the stocks and the whipping-post still in his immediate neighbourhood, let him turn which way he would. And then, certainly, his occupation had its seamy side. With this the satirists, who loved censure rather for its wounding than its healing properties, made great play. They were never tired of pointing out and ridiculing the rents in the stroller's coat; his shifts, trials, misfortunes, follies, were subjects for ceaseless derision.

What Grub Street and "penny-a-lining" have been to the vocation of letters, strolling and "barn-strutting" became to the histrionic profession--an excuse for scorn, underrating, and mirth, more or less bitter. Still strolling had its charms. To the beginner it afforded a kind of informal apprenticeship, with the advantage that while a learner of its mysteries, he could yet style himself a full member of the profession of the stage, and share in its profits. He was at once bud and flower. What though the floor of a ruined barn saw his first crude efforts, might not the walls of a patent theatre resound by-and-by with delighted applause, tribute to his genius?

It was a free, frank, open vocation he had adopted; it was unprotected and unrestricted by legislative provisions in the way of certificates, passes, examinations, and diplomas. There was no need of ticket, or voucher, or preparation of any kind to obtain admission to the ranks of the players. And there may be men who cannot shout at all, let the places be right or wrong. Still the stage can find room and subsistence of a sort for all, even for mutes. But carry a banner, walk in a procession, or form one of a crowd, and you may still call yourself actor, though not an actor of a high class, certainly. The histrionic calling is a ladder of many rungs. Remain on the lowest or mount to the highest--it is only a question of degree--you are a player all the same.

The Thespian army had no need of a recruiting-sergeant or a press-gang to reinforce its ranks. There have always been amateurs lured by the mere spectacle of the foot-lights, as moths by a candle. Crabbe's description of the strollers in his "Borough" was a favourite passage with Sir Walter Scott, and was often read to him in his last fatal illness:. And even to the skilled and experienced actors a wandering life offered potent attractions.

Apart from its liberty and adventure, its defiance of social convention and restraint, ambition had space to stir, and vanity could be abundantly indulged in the itinerant theatre. Dekker speaks of the bad presumptuous players, who out of a desire to "wear the best jerkin," and to "act great parts, forsake the stately and more than Roman city stages," and join a strolling company.

By many it was held better to reign in a vagrant than to serve in an established troop--preferable to appear as Hamlet in the provinces than to play Horatio or Guildenstern in town. And then, in the summer months, when the larger London houses were closed, strolling became a matter of necessity with a large number of actors; they could gain a subsistence in no other way. The rest must needs wander. Whatever their predilections, they were strollers upon compulsion.

Indeed, strolling was only feasible during summer weather. Audiences could hardly be moved from their firesides in winter, barns were too full of grain to be available for theatrical purposes, and the players were then glad to secure such regular employment as they could, however slender might be the scale of their remuneration. There is a story told of a veteran and a tyro actor walking in the fields early in the year, when, suddenly, the elder ran from the path, stopped abruptly, and planting his foot firmly upon the green-sward, exclaimed with ecstasy: "Three, by heaven!

His companion asked an explanation of this strange conduct. But when I can put my foot upon three daisies--summer's near, and managers may whistle for me! The life was not dignified, perhaps, but it had certain picturesque qualities. The stroller toiling on his own account, "padding the hoof," as he called journeying on foot--a small bundle under his arm, containing a few clothes and professional appliances--wandered from place to place, stopping now at a fair, now at a tavern, now at a country-house, to deliver recitations and speeches, and to gain such reward for his labours as he might.

Generally he found it advisable, however, to join a company of his brethren and share profits with them, parting from them again upon a difference of opinion or upon the receipts diminishing too seriously, when he would again rely upon his independent exertions. Sometimes the actor was able to hire or purchase scenes and dresses, the latter being procured generally from certain shops in Monmouth Street dealing in cast clothes and tarnished frippery that did well enough for histrionic purposes; then, engaging a company, he would start from London as a manager, to visit certain districts where it was thought that a harvest might be reaped.

The receipts were divided among the troop upon a prearranged method. The impresario took shares in his different characters of manager, proprietor, and actor. Even the fragments of the candles that had lighted the representations were divided amongst the company. Permission had always to be sought of the local magnates before a performance could be given; and the best-dressed and most cleanly-looking actor was deputed to make this application, as well as to conciliate the farmer or innkeeper, whose barn, stable, or great room was to be hired for the occasion. Churchill writes:.

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